1. Marmin can inhibit contraction of the guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle, especially by interfering histamine receptor, inhibiting the histamine release from mast, inhibiting intracellular Ca2+ release from the intracellular store and the Ca2+ influx through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels.
2. Marmin, skimmianine, aegeline, aurapten, zeorin, and dustanin are potential to develop as antihistamine agents, especially as histamine H1 receptor antagonists by interacting with amino acid residues, Asp107, Lys179, Lys191, Asn198, and Trp428 of histamine H1 receptor.
3. S-trans-Marmin shows potent antibacterial, fungicidal, and algicidal properties.
4. Marmin shows a cell-growth inhibitory effect against L1210 and K562 in vitro.
5. Marmin and nobiletin have anti-ulcer effects, which are ascribed primarily to the maintenance of the mucosal barrier integrity and inhibition of gastric motor activity and secondarily due to the prevention of the effects of endogenous acetylcholine and histamine.
1. Gramine is the excellent marker in rapid and transient systemic acquired resistance in barley.
2. Gramine has dual effect on the bile acid and sterols cell membrane partitioning activity in vivo.
3. Gramine can activate of antioxidants and inactivative of SOD in M. aeruginosa ;Gramine has phytotoxicity on M. aeruginosa may be due to oxidative damage via oxidation of ROS .
1. Neoprzewaquinone A has algicidal effect on M. aeruginosa , with EC50 of 4.68 mg /L, the potential inhibition mechanisms are neo-przewaquinone A caused M. aeruginosa cells morphologic damage or lysis, increased malondialdehyde content and decreased the soluble protein content, total antioxidant and superoxide dismutase activity, and significantly inhibited three photosynthesis-related genes (psaB, psbD, and rbcL).
1. Cyclo(Phe-Ala) displays significant anti-diatom activity with the inhibitory rate of 50% at the concentration of 50 microg/mL.
1. Cyclo(D-Leu-L-Pro) shows antitumour and antifungal activities.