Coenzyme Q10, an essential cofactor of the electron transport chain, has neuroprotective effect in the cerebral ischemia via as a potent antioxidant and oxygen derived free radicals scavenger. Treatment with coenzyme Q10 in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) may be beneficial in patients with high risk of atherothrombosis. The coenzyme Q10 and alpha-lipoic acid supplementation can improve bladder function after outlet obstruction. The combination of Coenzyme Q10 and creatine may be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's Diseases. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation improves endothelial function of conduit arteries of the peripheral circulation in dyslipidaemic patients with Type II diabetes, the mechanism could involve increased endothelial release and/or activity of nitric oxide due to improvement in vascular oxidative stress.
Phytol, a diterpene alcohol from chlorophyll widely used as a food additive and in medicinal fields, shows antinociceptive, antioxidant ,anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antileishmanial, cytotoxicity and antiallergic effects. It is a specific activator of PPARα, it interacts with GABAA receptor, probably at the receptor subtypes that mediate benzodiazepines effects. Phytol attenuates the inflammatory response by inhibiting neutrophil migration that is partly caused by reduction in IL-1β and TNF-α levels and oxidative stress.
1. Ethyl 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoate suppresses cellular cholesterol accumulation in a dose-dependent manner and induces the transcriptional activation of LXR-α/-β-responsive genes.
2. Ethyl 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoate is a dual-LXR modulator that regulates the expression of key genes in cholesterol homeostasis in multiple cells without inducing lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells.
Abietic acid, an abietane diterpenoid, inhibited soybean 5-lipoxygenase with an IC50 of 29.5 ± 1.29 μM.Abietic acid acts as a PPARα/γ dual activator to inhibit UVB-induced MMP-1 expression and age-related inflammation by suppressing NF-κB and the MAPK/AP-1 pathway and can be a useful agent for improving skin photoageing. Abietic acid can be used not only for anti-inflammation but also for regulating lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis.