Eriodictyol has vasodilator, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, it is an antagonist of the transient potential vanilloid 1 receptor (TRPV1) receptor. Eriodictyol may possess antidiabetic properties through increasing glucose uptake and improving insulin resistance, it attenuates the degree of retinal inflammation and plasma lipid peroxidation preserving the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) in early diabetic rats. It may be a potential therapeutic resource for Atopic dermatitis and an adjunctive agent to control itchiness inAtopic dermatitis.
Lithospermic acid has anti-HIV, antioxidant ,anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective effects, is a competitive inhibitor of xanthine oxidas (XO), can directly scavenge superoxide and inhibit superoxide production in vitro, and presents hypouricemic actions in vivo. Lithospermic acid has inhibitory effects on proliferation and migration of rat vascular smooth muscle cells, it has a preventive effect on the development of diabetic retinopathy. Lithospermic acid can attenuate 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine-induced neurotoxicity by blocking neuronal apoptotic and neuroinflammatory pathways. Lithospermic acid can attenuate mesenteric ischemia reperfusion injury in rat intestines by increasing tissue SOD and GPx activities and decreasing MDA and MPO levels, also improves morphological alterations which occurred after periods of reperfusion.
Astragalin (kaempferol-3-O-glucoside) is a flavonoid with anti-inflammatory activity, it inhibits the TLR4-mediated NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathways. Astragalin ameliorates oxidative stress-associated epithelial eosinophilia and apoptosis through disturbing TLR4-PKCβ2-NADPH oxidase-responsive signaling; it also can be effective in allaying ROS-promoted bronchial fibrosis through inhibiting autophagosome formation in airways.
Isoquercitrin has anti-tumoral, antihypertensive, anti-osteoporosis, anti-allergy, anti-inflammatory, and antiasthmatic activities, it also may be as a potential therapeutic agent against neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. Isoquercitrin is an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin that acts downstream of the β-catenin nuclear translocation; it is also a potential stimulator of bone mineralization used for prophylaxis of osteoporotic disorders. Isoquercitrin inhibited carbachol and leukotriene D4 -induced contraction in guinea-pig airways, and it induced hypotension in rats is an event dependent on the inhibition of angiotensin II generation by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE).
Crocin is a water-soluble carotenoid pigment of saffron (Crocus sativus L.), it has been used as a spice for flavoring and coloring food preparations. Crocin has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic, anti-asthma, anti-cancer, and hypolipidemic effects. Crocin improves toxic effects of diazinon via reducing lipid peroxidation and restoring altered contractile and relaxant responses in rat aorta; it also protects retinal photoreceptors against light-induced cell death. Crocin can also promote ovarian cancer HO-8910 cell apoptosis, most likely by increasing p53 and Fas/APO-1 expression, and then activating the apoptotic pathway regulated by Caspase-3.