Tripdiolide has cytotoxic, and anti-rheumatic activities, it suppresses pro-inflammatory gene expression, may be effective therapy for lupus nephritis.
Hypaconitine, an active and highly toxic constituent derived from Aconitum species, has anti-inflammatory activity, is widely used to treat rheumatism. It produced neuromuscular blockade by reducing the evoked quantal release, the mechanism of this effect was attributed mainly to blocking of the nerve compound action potential.
Sinomenine shows neuroprotective, anti- rheumatoid arthritis, anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects, it can attenuate 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in mice and the therapeutic mechanism may be related to the reduction of up-regulated colonic TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma production caused by TNBS. Sinomenine also provides a novel therapy to treat ICH induced brain injury. Sinomenine can prevent galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -treated hepatic failure by suppressing TNF production and/or reactive oxygen generation.
Swertiamarin possesses anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-diabetic activity and enhances β cell regeneration which causes reversal of diabetes. Swertiamarin also possesses significant wound healing, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, peripheral and central antinociceptive properties. Swertiamarin inhibits the development of arthritis by modulating NF-κB/IκB and JAK2/STAT3 signaling, it acts as an anti-rheumatic agent.
Bullatine A possesses anti-rheumatic, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects, may be used for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as arthritis. Bullatine A produces antinociception without induction of tolerance and inhibits morphine antinociceptive tolerance, and provide pharmacological basis for concurrent bullatine A and morphine treatment for chronic pain and morphine analgesic tolerance.