1. Tripdiolide has cytotoxic activity.
2. Tripdiolide has anti-rheumatic activity, suppresses pro-inflammatory gene expression, may be effective therapy for lupus nephritis.
Hypaconitine, an active and highly toxic constituent derived from Aconitum species, has anti-inflammatory activity, is widely used to treat rheumatism. It produced neuromuscular blockade by reducing the evoked quantal release, the mechanism of this effect was attributed mainly to blocking of the nerve compound action potential.
1. Sinomenine has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects, it can attenuate 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in mice and the therapeutic mechanism may be related to the reduction of up-regulated colonic TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma production caused by TNBS.
2. Sinomenine exerts anti- rheumatoid arthritis action probably through modulating the frequencies of Treg cells and Th17 cells in intestinal lymph nodes and yielding a trafficking of lymphocytes (especially Treg cells) from gut to joint.
3. Sinomenine plays the protective effects through inhibition of microglial inflammation, and the findings also provides a novel therapy to treat ICH induced brain injury.
4. Sinomenine has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities through inhibition of microglial NADPH oxidase.
5. Sinomenine can prevent galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -treated hepatic failure by suppressing TNF production and/or reactive oxygen generation.
Swertiamarin possesses anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-diabetic activity and enhances β cell regeneration which causes reversal of diabetes. Swertiamarin also possesses significant wound healing, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, peripheral and central antinociceptive properties. Swertiamarin inhibits the development of arthritis by modulating NF-κB/IκB and JAK2/STAT3 signaling, it acts as an anti-rheumatic agent.
Bullatine A possesses anti-rheumatic, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects, may be used for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as arthritis. Bullatine A produces antinociception without induction of tolerance and inhibits morphine antinociceptive tolerance, and provide pharmacological basis for concurrent bullatine A and morphine treatment for chronic pain and morphine analgesic tolerance.