4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde shows an inhibitory effect on the GABA transaminase to contribute to an antiepileptic and anticonvulsive activity, and its inhibitory activity was higher than that of valproic acid, a known anticonvulsant.
Curcumol has antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anti-seizure actions. It suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclast formation by attenuating the JNK signaling pathway, and inhibited Jak2-STAT signal pathway molecules of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. It is a novel anti-seizure agent which inhibited neuronal excitability through enhancing GABAergic inhibition.
Mesaconitine has antinociceptive activity, has inhibition of stimulus-triggered and spontaneous epileptiform activity in rat hippocampal slices. It has antiinflammatory activity, it induced Ca2+ influx and activation of nitric-oxide synthase in endothelial cells and, thus, induced vasorelaxation in rat aorta.
Tetrahydropalmatine, a plant alkaloid used as an ingredient in dietary supplement products, is a potent and selective D1 receptor antagonist. Tetrahydropalmatine shows a promyogenic effect by upregulation of p38MAPK, Akt resulting in enhanced MyoD activation, it can effectively protect endothelial cells against γ-irradiation injury. Tetrahydropalmatine has a potential as a therapeutic candidate to prevent fibrosis and improve muscle regeneration and repair and applied to the prevention of endothelial cell dysfunctions associated with ionizing irradiation-induced lung injury.
Saikosaponin A has a variety of pharmacological benefits, including antiepileptic, anti-osteoporosis, antioxidant, anti-inﬂammatory, immunomodulatory, and anti-bacterial activities. It extends to alcohol self-administration the capacity to suppress morphine and cocaine self-administration in rats, and can effectively attenuate neuropathic pain in CCI rats by inhibiting the activation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways in spinal cord. It can inhibit NMDA receptor current and persistent sodium current, and inhibit the TNF-α level, the IL-1β production, and cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase)-1 activity.