1. Neotuberostemonine (NTS) is one of the main antitussive alkaloids in the root of Stemona tuberosa Lour, it has a significant protective effect on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis through suppressing the recruitment and M2 polarization of macrophages.
2. Neotuberostemonine demonstrates antitussive properties in guinea pigs.
1. Neferine shows significant improvement in cognitive impairment in scopolamine-induced amnesia animal models and moderate inhibitory activities, the anti-amnesic effect of neferine may be mediated via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities, as well as inhibition of ChEs and BACE1.
2. Neferine induces autophagy through the inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and ROS hyper generation in A549 cells.
3. Neferine attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vitro and in vivo, the beneficial effect of neferine may be associated with its activities of anti-inflammation, antioxidation, cytokine and NF-kappaB inhibition.
4. Neferine has effects similar to rosiglitazone in decreasing fasting blood glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and enhancing insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant rats.
5. Neferine inhibits proliferation of human osteosarcoma cells by promoting p38 MAPK-mediated p21 stabilization.
6. Neferine shows anti-anxiety effects and that neferine may participate in the efficacy of the sedative effects of embryos of the seeds of Nelumbo nucifera, the mechanisms of the sedative effects of neferine are not similar to those of diazepam.
7. Neferine possesses a significant inhibitory effect on amiodarone-induced pulmonary fibrosis, probably due to its properties of anti-inflammation, surfactant protein-D (SP-D) inhibition and restoring increased CD4+CD25+ Tregs which may modulate Th1/Th2 imbalance by suppressing Th2 response.
8. Neferine shows antidepressant-like effects in mice similar to typical antidepressants and that these effects are mediated by the 5-HT 1A receptor.
9. Neferine exerts strong antioxidant property against isoproterenol-induced oxidative stress and can be used as a potent cardioprotective agent against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction.
1. Peiminine demonstrates inhibitory effects on IgE-dependent anaphylaxis, it has regulatory potential for allergic inflammatory reactions mediated by HMC-1 cells.
2. Peiminine can inhibit lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis in a rat model of bleomycin-induced lung injury, by reducing circulating IFN-γ levels and inhibiting signal transduction pathways involving TGF-β, CTGF, ERK1/2, NF-κB and FasL.
3. Peiminine can repress colorectal carcinoma cell proliferation and cell growth by inducing autophagic cell death.
1. Phillyrin may have a protective effect on LPS-induced ALI, and it potentially contributes to the suppression of the activation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways, it may be a new preventive agent of acute lung injury in the clinical setting.
2. Phillyrin is a novel AMPK activator, it can prevent lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells by blocking the expression of SREBP-1c and FAS through LKB1/AMPK activation.
3. Phillyrin has anti-obesity effects in nutritive obesity mice.[
4. Phillyrin has protective effects on H2O2-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in PC12 cells.
1. Praeruptorin D can significantly inhibit the infiltration of activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and decrease the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at the same dose.
2. Praeruptorin D suppresses LPS induced Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway activation in the lung by decreasing the cytoplasmic loss of Inhibitor κB-α (IκB-α) protein and inhibiting the translocation of p65 from cytoplasm to nucleus.