1. Galanolactone shows cytotoxic activity .
2. Galanolactone has anti-5-HT effect, a diterpenoid isolated from ginger, is related to antagonism of 5-HT3 receptors.
3. Galanolactone exerts anti-obesity effect through down regulation of adipogenic transcription factors and adipogenic marker genes.
4. Galanolactone has inhibit nitric oxide production with IC(50) values ranging from 5.5 to 28.5 μM.
1. Pregnenolone , a common precursor of many steroids, is present in the blood of normal adult men at concentrations of 1-3 nM, it can stimulate LNCaP prostate cancer cell growth via the mutated androgen receptor.
2. Pregnenolone has memory-enhancing effects.
3. Pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone as precursors of native 7-hydroxylated metabolites which increase the immune response in mice.
4. Add-on Pregnenolone reduces the severity of negative symptoms in recent-onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, especially among patients who are not treated with concomitant mood stabilizers .
1. Neferine shows significant improvement in cognitive impairment in scopolamine-induced amnesia animal models and moderate inhibitory activities, the anti-amnesic effect of neferine may be mediated via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities, as well as inhibition of ChEs and BACE1.
2. Neferine induces autophagy through the inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and ROS hyper generation in A549 cells.
3. Neferine attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vitro and in vivo, the beneficial effect of neferine may be associated with its activities of anti-inflammation, antioxidation, cytokine and NF-kappaB inhibition.
4. Neferine has effects similar to rosiglitazone in decreasing fasting blood glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and enhancing insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant rats.
5. Neferine inhibits proliferation of human osteosarcoma cells by promoting p38 MAPK-mediated p21 stabilization.
6. Neferine shows anti-anxiety effects and that neferine may participate in the efficacy of the sedative effects of embryos of the seeds of Nelumbo nucifera, the mechanisms of the sedative effects of neferine are not similar to those of diazepam.
7. Neferine possesses a significant inhibitory effect on amiodarone-induced pulmonary fibrosis, probably due to its properties of anti-inflammation, surfactant protein-D (SP-D) inhibition and restoring increased CD4+CD25+ Tregs which may modulate Th1/Th2 imbalance by suppressing Th2 response.
8. Neferine shows antidepressant-like effects in mice similar to typical antidepressants and that these effects are mediated by the 5-HT 1A receptor.
9. Neferine exerts strong antioxidant property against isoproterenol-induced oxidative stress and can be used as a potent cardioprotective agent against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction.
1. Sarsasapogenin has the effects of being anti-diabetes and improving memory, it can induce cell apoptosis through arrest of cell cycle in G(2)/M phase, it could be used as an anti-cancer drug .
2. Sarsasapogenin can improve memory by elevating the low muscarinic acetylcholine receptor density in brains of memory-deficit rat models.
3. Sarsasapogenin has antidepressant activity, the effect may involve the central monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems.
4. Sarsasapogenin exerts its antitumor activity through both reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress cell death.
5. Sarsasapogenin has protective effects against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in the cultured cortical neurons in rats.
6. Sarsasapogenin can effectively promote the proliferation,differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts cultured in vitro, it also can inhibit the generation of osteoclasts from marrow cells.
7. Sarsasapogenin has anti-inflammatory effect.
1. (-)-Huperzine A is a naturally occurring potent reversible AChE inhibitor that penetrates the blood-brain barrier.
2. (-)-Huperzine A can be used as a protectIve agent against lethal dose nerve agent toxicity in guinea pigs.
3. A combination of (+) and (-)-Huperzine A offers better protection than (+)-Hup A.