1. Galanolactone shows cytotoxic activity .
2. Galanolactone has anti-5-HT effect, a diterpenoid isolated from ginger, is related to antagonism of 5-HT3 receptors.
3. Galanolactone exerts anti-obesity effect through down regulation of adipogenic transcription factors and adipogenic marker genes.
4. Galanolactone has inhibit nitric oxide production with IC(50) values ranging from 5.5 to 28.5 μM.
Pregnenolone is an endogenous steroid hormone for inhibition of M1 receptor and M3 receptor-mediated currents with IC50 of 11.4 μM and 6.0 μM, respectively. Pregnenolone has memory-enhancing effects, used in the treatment of fatigue, Alzheimer’s disease, trauma and injuries.
Neferine, a autophagy inducer, which has anti-amnesic, sedative, anti-anxiety, antidepressant, cardioprotective, anti- pulmonary fibrosis,anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities. It inhibited ChEs, BACE1, NF-kappaB, PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, Neferine has effects similar to rosiglitazone in decreasing fasting blood glucose, insulin, TG, TNF-alpha and enhancing insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant rats.
Sarsasapogenin has antidiabetic, improving memory, antidepressant, anti-oxidative, anticancer and anti-inflamatory activities. It can effectively promote the proliferation,differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts cultured in vitro, it also can inhibit the generation of osteoclasts from marrow cells. Sarsasapogenin potently inhibited NF-κB and MAPK activation, as well as IRAK1, TAK1, and IκBα phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated macrophages.
(-)-Huperzine A is a naturally occurring potent reversible AChE inhibitor that penetrates the blood-brain barrier, it also has several neuroprotective effects including modification of beta-amyloid peptide, reduction of oxidative stress, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and induction and regulation of nerve growth factor.