1. Lyoniresinol shows robust anti-melanogenic activity, decreases tyrosinase activity and melanin biosynthesis in B16F10 cells by activating ERK signaling, which downregulated MITF, tyrosinase, but not TRP-1 and TRP-2 protein expression.
2. Lyoniresinol has antioxidant effect.
Chicoric acid, a new compound able to enhance insulin release and glucose uptake, it is a new potential antidiabetic agent carrying both insulin sensitizing and insulin-secreting properties. Chicoric acid has antiobesity effects, it can induce apoptosis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes through ROS-mediated PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways. L-Chicoric acid has antiviral activity against HIV-1, which has been attributed to the inhibition of HIV-1 integration.
Plants containing aloin A, aloe emodin, and structurally related anthraquinones have long been used as traditional medicines and in the formulation of retail products such as laxatives, dietary supplements, and cosmetics; however, topically applied aloe emodin increases the sensitivity of skin to UV light, although aloin A is not directly photocytotoxic, but human skin fibroblasts can metabolize aloin A to aloe emodin. Aloin A and aloe emodin have antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
1. Artocarpin induces apoptosis in HSC-1 and T47D cells through modulation of MAPK and Akt/mTOR pathways, an extrinsic pathway , respectively .
2. Artocarpin has anti- bactericidal effect, can reduce the viability of pneumococci by a factor of >1000, without obvious harm to lung epithelial cells.
3. Artocarpin can prevent skin damage from UVB irradiation-induced photodamage in hairless mice and this is likely mediated through its antioxidant and anti-inflammation mechanisms.
4. Artocarpin possesses potent 5alpha reductase inhibitory effect.
5. Artocarpin has an efficient lightening effect on UV-stimulated hyperpigmented dorsal skins of brownish guinea pigs.
Dietary supplementation of aloe components (aloin, aloesin and aloe-gel) can ameliorate intestinal inflammatory responses in a 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis rat model, in particular, aloesin is the most potent inhibitor. The extract of A. vera and its active ingredient aloin cause melanin aggregation leading to skin lightening via alpha adrenergic receptor stimulation.