1. Cathinone is the main psychoactive constituent of the khat leaf and this alkaloid is a natural amphetamine, cathinone shares the action of amphetamine on CNS as well as its sympathomimetic effects.
2. (-)-Cathinone has reproductive toxicity in rats.
3. Cathinone generates oxidative stress hampered antioxidant enzymes, glutathione and lipid peroxidation.
4. Cathinone induces significant behavioral changes and CNS activation in the hamster by systemic administration.
5. Cathinone causes hormonal alterations probably via changes in hypothalamo-hypophyseo-adrenocortical and gonadal axes integrity.
6. Cathinone has amphetamine-like effects, it can produce increases in blood pressure and in heart rate, and these changes are concomitant with the presence of cathinone in blood plasma, it has in humans euphorigenic and psychostimulant effects.
7. Cathinone has vasoconstrictor activity which is not due to indirect or direct sympathomimetic activity, the coronary vasoconstriction may explain the increased incidence of myocardial infarction in khat chewers, which may arise from coronary vasospasm.
1. Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant drug made from the leaves of the coca plant native to South America, it produces short-term euphoria.
2. Cocaine constricts blood vessels, dilates pupils, and increases body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure.
3. Cocaine has a small number of accepted medical uses such as numbing and decreasing bleeding during nasal surgery.
4. Cocaine sensitizes VTA cells to the excitatory effects of both CRF and orexin-A, thus providing a mechanism by which stress induces Cocaine seeking.
5. Cocaine can cause headaches and gastrointestinal complications such as abdominal pain and nausea. Because cocaine tends to decrease appetite, chronic users can become malnourished as well.
8-O-Acetylharpagide has anti-inflammatory, vasoconstrictor, antibacteria and antiviral activities, it also has a biological activity on isolated smooth muscle preparations from guinea pig. 8-O-Acetylharpagide presents the obvious inhibition on Epstein-Barr virus(EBV) infection, it not only apparently inhibits EBV-VCA,but also alleviates the hyperfunction and effusion of capillary permeability at the early inflammation.
Yohimbine is a potent and relatively nonselective alpha 2-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist, with IC50 of 0.6 μM. Yohimbine may augment extinction learning without significant side effects, and as a therapeutic augmentation strategy for exposure therapy in social anxiety disorder. Yohimbine can be used as antagonistic agents against medetomidine-induced diuresis in healthy cats; it inhibits ATP-sensitive K+ channels in mouse pancreatic beta-cells.
Dimethylacrylshikonin is a promising agent for developing an improved strategy for radiotherapy against tumors, it inhibits the proliferation of MCF-7 cells in vitro by inducing apoptosis through the downregulation of Bcl-2, upregulation of Bax and partial inactivation of the NF-κB pathway. Dimethylacrylshikonin inhibits agonist-induced relaxation at lower concentrations and induces vasocontraction at higher concentrations.