1. Cathinone is the main psychoactive constituent of the khat leaf and this alkaloid is a natural amphetamine, cathinone shares the action of amphetamine on CNS as well as its sympathomimetic effects.
2. (-)-Cathinone has reproductive toxicity in rats.
3. Cathinone generates oxidative stress hampered antioxidant enzymes, glutathione and lipid peroxidation.
4. Cathinone induces significant behavioral changes and CNS activation in the hamster by systemic administration.
5. Cathinone causes hormonal alterations probably via changes in hypothalamo-hypophyseo-adrenocortical and gonadal axes integrity.
6. Cathinone has amphetamine-like effects, it can produce increases in blood pressure and in heart rate, and these changes are concomitant with the presence of cathinone in blood plasma, it has in humans euphorigenic and psychostimulant effects.
7. Cathinone has vasoconstrictor activity which is not due to indirect or direct sympathomimetic activity, the coronary vasoconstriction may explain the increased incidence of myocardial infarction in khat chewers, which may arise from coronary vasospasm.
1. Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant drug made from the leaves of the coca plant native to South America, it produces short-term euphoria.
2. Cocaine constricts blood vessels, dilates pupils, and increases body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure.
3. Cocaine has a small number of accepted medical uses such as numbing and decreasing bleeding during nasal surgery.
4. Cocaine sensitizes VTA cells to the excitatory effects of both CRF and orexin-A, thus providing a mechanism by which stress induces Cocaine seeking.
5. Cocaine can cause headaches and gastrointestinal complications such as abdominal pain and nausea. Because cocaine tends to decrease appetite, chronic users can become malnourished as well.
1. 8-O-Acetylharpagide has anti-inflammatory activity.
2. 8-O-Acetylharpagide has antibacteria and antiviral activities.
3. 8-O-Acetylharpagide has a biological activity on isolated smooth muscle preparations from guinea pig.
4. 8-O-Acetylharpagide has vasoconstrictor activity.
5. 8-O-Acetylharpagide presents the obvious inhibition on Epstein-Barr virus(EBV) infection, it not only apparently inhibits EBV-VCA,but also alleviates the hyperfunction and effusion of capillary permeability at the early inflammation.
1. Yohimbine may augment extinction learning without significant side effects.
2. Yohimbine as a therapeutic augmentation strategy for exposure therapy in social anxiety disorder.
3. Yohimbine can be used as antagonistic agents against medetomidine-induced diuresis in healthy cats.
4. Yohimbine is an alpha-2 adrenoreceptor antagonist that provokes stress- and anxiety-like responses in both humans and laboratory animals.
5. Yohimbine and phentolamine inhibit ATP-sensitive K+ channels in mouse pancreatic beta-cells.
6. Yohimbine has potentiation of alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction in response to clonidine in the rabbit ear vein.
1. Dimethylacrylshikonin is a promising agent for developing an improved strategy for radiotherapy against tumors.
(a) Injection of Dimethylacrylshikonin combined with IR treatment significantly suppressed tumor growth of the HCT-116 xenograft.
(b) Dimethylacrylshikonin significantly suppressed the growth of H(22) transplantable hepatoma, and induced the activation of caspase-3 .
(c) Dimethylacrylshikonin inhibited growth of gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells by inducing ERK signaling pathway.
2. Dimethylacrylshikonin inhibits the proliferation of MCF-7 cells in vitro by inducing apoptosis through the downregulation of Bcl-2, upregulation of Bax and partial inactivation of the NF-κB pathway.
3. Shikonin (SA) and its derivatives(acetylshikonin and β,β-Dimethylacrylshikonin) inhibit agonist-induced relaxation at lower concentrations and induce vasocontraction at higher concentrations; all the effects seen with SA are endothelium-dependent, however, through different mechanisms.