|Source:||The peel of Punica granatum L.|
|Biological Activity or Inhibitors:|| 1. 1,2,3,4,6-Pentagalloylglucose and gallic acid from Pistacia lentiscus have antimutagenic and antioxidant activities.
2. 1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (PGG) possesses potent anti-proliferative and anti-invasive effects, it also has inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 activity.
3. PGG may serve as a model for the development of new types of anti-diabetic and anti-metabolic syndrome therapeutics.
4. 1,2,3,4,6-Penta- O -galloyl-β- d -glucose has vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory effects, it dilates vascular smooth muscle and suppresses the vascular inflammatory process via endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP signaling.
5. 1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose can decrease the level of extracellular hepatitis B virus (HBV) (IC50, 1.0 microg/ml) in a dose-dependent manner, it also can reduce the HBsAg level by 25% at a concentration of 4 microg/ml; the gallate structure of PGG may play a critical role in the inhibition of anti-HBV activity, suggests that PGG could be a candidate for developing an anti-HBV agent.
6. 1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose has anti-parasitic activity, displays an EC50 value of 67 μM, at least 6.6-fold more effective than the standard drug benznidazole against trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi.
|Solvent:||Pyridine, Methanol, Ethanol, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: email@example.com
|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||1.0631 mL||5.3153 mL||10.6306 mL||21.2612 mL||26.5765 mL|
|5 mM||0.2126 mL||1.0631 mL||2.1261 mL||4.2522 mL||5.3153 mL|
|10 mM||0.1063 mL||0.5315 mL||1.0631 mL||2.1261 mL||2.6577 mL|
|50 mM||0.0213 mL||0.1063 mL||0.2126 mL||0.4252 mL||0.5315 mL|
|100 mM||0.0106 mL||0.0532 mL||0.1063 mL||0.2126 mL||0.2658 mL|
Chem.Biol.Interact., 2007, 165(1):1-13.
|Study of antimutagenic and antioxidant activities of gallic acid and 1,2,3,4,6-pentagalloylglucose from Pistacia lentiscus. Confirmation by microarray expression profiling.[Pubmed: 17129579 ]|
|In vitro antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of two polyphenols isolated from the fruits of Pistacia lentiscus was assessed. Antioxidant activity was determined by the ability of each compound to scavenge the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*), to inhibit xanthine oxidase and to inhibit the lipid peroxidation induced by H(2)O(2) in K562 cell line. Antimutagenic activity was assayed with SOS chromotest using Escherichia coli PQ37 as tester strain and Comet assay using K562 cell line. 1,2,3,4,6-Pentagalloylglucose was found to be more effective to scavenge DPPH* radical and protect against lipid peroxidation. Moreover, these two compounds induced an inhibitory activity against nifuroxazide and aflatoxin B1 mutagenicity. The protective effect exhibited by these molecules was also determined by analysis of gene expression as response to an oxidative stress. For this purpose, we used a cDNA-microarray containing 82 genes related to cell defense, essentially represented by antioxidant and DNA repair proteins. We found that 1,2,3,4,6-pentagalloylglucose induced a decrease in the expression of 11 transcripts related to antioxidant enzymes family (GPX1, TXN, AOE372, SHC1 and SEPW1) and DNA repair (POLD1, APEX, POLD2, MPG, PARP and XRCC5). The use of Gallic acid, induced expression of TXN, TXNRD1, AOE372, GSS (antioxidant enzymes) and LIG4, POLD2, MPG, GADD45A, PCNA, RPA2, DDIT3, HMOX2, XPA, TDG, ERCC1 and GTF2H1 (DNA repair) as well as the repression of GPX1, SEPW1, POLD1 and SHC1 gene|
Eur. J.Pharmacol., 2005, 524(1-3):111-9.
|Vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory effects of the 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (PGG) via a nitric oxide-cGMP pathway.[Pubmed: 16253226 ]|
|Vasorelaxant and anti-inflammatory effects of a 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-d-glucose (PGG) isolated from the root barks of Paeonia suffruticosa and possible mechanisms responsible were investigated. PGG induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of the phenylephrine-precontracted rat aorta. This effect disappeared with the removal of functional endothelium. Pretreatment of the aortic tissues with either N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazole-[4,3-alpha]-quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) inhibited the relaxation induced by PGG. Incubation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) or carotid arteries isolated from rats with PGG increased the production of cGMP in a dose-dependent manner, but this effect was blocked by pretreatment with L-NAME and ODQ, respectively. PGG treatment attenuated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) p65 translocation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In addition, PGG suppressed the expression levels of adhesion molecules including intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) induced by TNF-alpha. TNF-alpha-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression was also attenuated by addition of PGG. PGG treatment inhibited cellular adhesion of U937 cells onto human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced by TNF-alpha. Taken together, the present study suggests that PGG dilates vascular smooth muscle and suppresses the vascular inflammatory process via endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP signaling.|