|Source:||The roots of Stemona japonica|
|Biological Activity or Inhibitors:||1. Protostemonine has anti-inflammatory activity, it effectively attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo; the beneficial effects are associated with the decreased phosphorylation of MAPK and AKT and the reduced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as iNOS, NO and cytokines.
2. Protostemonine shows strong nematicidal activity against Panagrellus redivevus, with the IC50 value of 0.10 uM.
3. Protostemonine attenuates LPS/GalN-induced acute liver failure and upregulating HO-1 expression is implicated in its hepatoprotective activity.
4. Protostemonine shows significant antitussive activity in a citric acid-induced guinea pig cough model following peripheral administration.
|Solvent:||Chloroform, Dichloromethane, Ethyl Acetate, DMSO, Acetone, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: firstname.lastname@example.org
|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||2.3969 mL||11.9844 mL||23.9687 mL||47.9375 mL||59.9219 mL|
|5 mM||0.4794 mL||2.3969 mL||4.7937 mL||9.5875 mL||11.9844 mL|
|10 mM||0.2397 mL||1.1984 mL||2.3969 mL||4.7937 mL||5.9922 mL|
|50 mM||0.0479 mL||0.2397 mL||0.4794 mL||0.9587 mL||1.1984 mL|
|100 mM||0.024 mL||0.1198 mL||0.2397 mL||0.4794 mL||0.5992 mL|
Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2018 Jan;39(1):85-96.
|Protostemonine effectively attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice.[Pubmed: 29047459 ]|
|Protostemonine (PSN) is the main anti-inflammatory alkaloid extracted from the roots of Stemona sessilifolia (known as "Baibu" in traditional Chinese medicine). Here, we reported the inhibitory effects of PSN on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage activation in vitro and LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice. Macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells and mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were treated with PSN (1, 3, 10, 30 and 100 μmol/L) for 0.5 h and then challenged with LPS (0.1 μg/mL) for 24 h. Pretreatment with PSN significantly inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of MAPKs and AKT, iNOS expression and NO production in the macrophages. C57BL/6 mice were intratracheally injected with LPS (5 mg/kg) to induce acute lung injury (ALI). The mice were subsequently treated with PSN (10 mg/kg, ip) at 4 and 24 h after LPS challenge. PSN administration significantly attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) production and eliminated LPS-mediated lung edema. Furthermore, PSN administration significantly inhibited LPS-induced pulmonary MPO activity. Meanwhile, LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, iNOS expression and NO production in the lungs were also suppressed. The results demonstrate that PSN effectively attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo; the beneficial effects are associated with the decreased phosphorylation of MAPK and AKT and the reduced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as iNOS, NO and cytokines. These data suggest that PSN may be a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of ALI.|
J Nat Prod. 2016 Oct 28;79(10):2599-2605.
|Nematicidal Stemona Alkaloids from Stemona parviflora.[Pubmed: 27684288 ]|
|Eight new alkaloids, 3β-n-butylstemonamine (1), 8-oxo-3β-n-butylstemonamine (2), 3-n-butylneostemonine (3), 10-epi-3-n-butylneostemonine (4), 8-oxo-oxymaistemonine (5) Protostemonine N4-oxide (6), (19S)-hydroxy-21-methoxystemofoline (7), and parvistemonine A (8), were isolated from the roots of Stemona parviflora, together with 17 known alkaloids. The structures of the new alkaloids were elucidated based on a comprehensive spectroscopic data analysis. The absolute configurations of 1-4 were determined by the ECD exciton chirality method and quantum ECD calculations. Protostemonine (10) and stemofoline (12) showed strong nematicidal activity against Panagrellus redivevus, with IC50 values of 0.10 and 0.46 μM, respectively.|
Int Immunopharmacol. 2015 Dec;29(2):798-807.
|Protective effects of protostemonine on LPS/GalN-induced acute liver failure: Roles of increased hepatic expression of heme oxygenase-1.[Pubmed: 26363973 ]|
|Here, we explored protective effects of Protostemonine (PSN), on mouse acute liver failure induced by lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine (LPS/GalN). PSN dose-dependently declined LPS/GalN-induced lethality of mice as well as increase of ALT/AST activities in their serum. Hepatoprotective effects of PSN were also supported by liver histopathological examinations. After LPS/GalN treatment, severe oxidative stresses in the liver could be detected by boosted MDA and ROS as well as decreased GSH. Moreover, hepatic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, were sharply elevated. These symptoms were dose-dependently ameliorated by PSN. Mechanistically, PSN promoted the transcription and translation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in hepatocytes and liver Kupffer cells. Nrf2 is a master transcription factor contributing to the expression of HO-1. PSN elevated Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and enhanced Nrf2/HO-1 promoter interaction. Suppressing enzyme activity of HO-1 by co-treating mice with HO-1 inhibitor ZnPP abolished protective effects of PSN. ZnPP also abrogated alleviative impacts of PSN on LPS/GalN-mediated hepatic oxidative stresses and inflammatory responses. Finally, we showed that PSN exhibited undetectable toxic effects on vital organs of mice. Our findings suggested that PSN is able to attenuate LPS/GalN-induced acute liver failure and upregulating HO-1 expression is implicated in its hepatoprotective activity.|
Planta Med. 2009 Feb;75(2):174-7.
|Alkaloids from roots of Stemona sessilifolia and their antitussive activities.[Pubmed: 19031364]|
|Protostemonamide ( 1), a new Protostemonine-type alkaloid, and 12 known compounds were isolated from the roots of Stemona sessilifolia. Their structures were elucidated by 1 D and 2 D NMR spectral and other spectroscopic studies. The main alkaloidal constituents, Protostemonine ( 2), stemospironine ( 4), and maistemonine ( 7), showed significant antitussive activity in a citric acid-induced guinea pig cough model following peripheral administration; stemonamine ( 11) had antitussive activity following i. c. v. administration.|