|Mol Med Rep. 2014 Jun;9(6):2362-6. |
|α-Spinasterol from Melandrium firmum attenuates benign prostatic hyperplasia in a rat model.[Pubmed: 24682042]|
|Spinasterol, a biologically active compound, exhibits a number of pharmacological activities, including antitumor, antiulcerogenic and anticarcinogenic activity, and originates from the aerial parts of Aster scaber Thunb (Asteraceae). The present study investigated whether alpha-Spinasterol isolated from Melandrium firmum Rohrbach could prevent benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone propionate (TP) in rats. |
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of eight rats following castration. A negative control group received subcutaneous injections of corn oil. Treatments were administered orally 1 h prior to TP injection. All the rats were sacrificed at the scheduled termination time and their prostates were removed, cleaned and weighed. The prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat body weight) was then calculated. Additional histopathological examinations were conducted, and the levels of TP and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the serum and prostate were measured. TP significantly increased the prostate size ratio (P<0.01), and DHT and testosterone levels in the serum and prostate. The TP-induced increase was significantly inhibited in alpha-Spinasterol-treated rats when compared with the negative controls (P<0.05). In addition, histopathological examination demonstrated that α-spinasterol treatment suppressed TP-induced prostatic hyperplasia.
It is concluded that alpha-Spinasterol can prevent TP-induced prostatic hyperplasia and may be beneficial in the management of BPH.
|J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;151(1):144-50. |
|Anti-inflammatory action of hydroalcoholic extract, dichloromethane fraction and steroid α-spinasterol from Polygala sabulosa in LPS-induced peritonitis in mice.[Pubmed: 24161429]|
|Polygala sabulosa A. W. Bennett is a small herb popularly known as "timutu-pinheirinho" that is widely distributed in southern Brazil and that is used to treat disorders of the bowel and kidney and as a topical anesthetic and expectorant in folk medicine. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of the hydroalcoholic extract (HEPs), CH2Cl2 fraction and the steroid α-spinasterol obtained from the aerial parts of Polygala sabulosa in a model of acute inflammation induced by intraperitoneal injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide in mice.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
The anti-inflammatory effect of HEPs (3-300 mg/kg, i.g.), CH2Cl2 fraction (0.003-30 mg/kg, i.g.) and steroid α-spinasterol (0.001-1mg/kg, i.p. or 1-10mg/kg, i.g.), were evaluated in mice subjected to the acute inflammation caused by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.02 µg/kg). The anti-inflammatory activity of the HEPs, CH2Cl2 fraction and steroid were assessed by determining the total numbers of leukocytes and differential cell counts (neutrophils and mononuclear cells) and levels of pro-inflammatory (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6) or anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines in peritoneal fluid.
The administration of HEPs (3-300 mg/kg, i.g.) completely inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration (300 mg/kg, i.g.) and it reduced TNF-α (100-300 mg/kg) and IL-1β (100mg/kg) levels in LPS-injected mice. Furthermore, the administration of CH2Cl2 fraction (0.003-30 mg/kg, i.g.) or α-spinasterol (0.001-10mg/kg, by i.p. or i.g.) significantly reduces inflammatory cell infiltration in LPS-injected mice. Moreover, dexamethasone (0.5mg/kg, i.p., used as a positive control) inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration and reduced the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in LPS-injected mice.
Taken together, these results provide the first experimental evidence demonstrating that HEPs have significant anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-induced inflammation. These effects appear to be, at least in part, due to the presence of α-spinasterol. These findings support the widespread use of Polygala sabulosa in popular medicine and demonstrate that this plant has therapeutic potential for the development of phytomedicines with anti-inflammatory properties.
|Planta Med. 2004 Aug;70(8):736-9. |
|alpha-Spinasterol isolated from the root of Phytolacca americana and its pharmacological property on diabetic nephropathy.[Pubmed: 15326549 ]|
METHODS AND RESULTS:
Based on an inhibitory activity-guided fractionation for the high glucose-induced proliferation of glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs), chloroform extracts of the roots of Phytolacca americana were found to contain alpha-Spinasterol (C (29)H (48)O), a delta (7)-sterol. This phytosterol proved to be a potent inhibitor (IC (50) = 3.9 x 10 (-12) g/mL, 9.5 pmol/L) of glomerular mesangial cell proliferation caused by high-ambient glucose (5.6 mM vs. 25 mM), and its inhibitory potency was about 1,000 times higher than that of simvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor used as a positive control. alpha-Spinasterol also significantly reduced the increases of serum triglycerides, renal weight and urinary protein excretion in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, and these were comparable to the results observed in insulin-treated diabetic mice.
Therefore, the results obtained in this study suggest that alpha-Spinasterol has a significant therapeutic potential to modulate the development and/or progression of diabetic nephropathy.