1. 1,2,3,4,6-Pentagalloylglucose(PGG) and gallic acid from Pistacia lentiscus have antimutagenic and antioxidant activities.
2. PGG possesses potent anti-proliferative and anti-invasive effects, it also has inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 activity.
3. PGG may serve as a model for the development of new types of anti-diabetic and anti-metabolic syndrome therapeutics.
4. PGG has vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory effects, it dilates vascular smooth muscle and suppresses the vascular inflammatory process via endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP signaling.
5. PGG can decrease the level of extracellular hepatitis B virus (HBV) (IC50, 1.0 microg/ml) in a dose-dependent manner, it also can reduce the HBsAg level by 25% at a concentration of 4 microg/ml; the gallate structure of PGG may play a critical role in the inhibition of anti-HBV activity, suggests that PGG could be a candidate for developing an anti-HBV agent.
6. PGG has anti-parasitic activity, displays an EC50 value of 67 μM, at least 6.6-fold more effective than the standard drug benznidazole against trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi.
1. 1,2,3,6-Tetragalloylglucose has antioxidative activity.
2. 1,2,3,6-Tetragalloylglucose shows the most potent anticomplement activity (IC(50), 34 microM).
1,2-Dihydroxybenzene can induce spontaneous convulsive activity in the anaesthetized mouse and produce myoclonic jerks in the rat. It regulated 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels.
1. 1,2 Dihydrotanshinquinone is active against both Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Plasmodium falciparum.
1. 1,3,6-Tri-O-galloylglucose shows anti-inflammatory activity.
1. 1,3-Dicaffeoylquinic acid exhibits antioxidant properties, probably through the involvement of a direct scavenging effect on several free radicals.
2. 1,3-Dicaffeoylquinic acid and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, ginkgolic acids (15 : 1) and (17 : 1), and epicatechin can significantly inhibit hOAT3 transport under similar conditions.
1. 1,4-Dicaffeoylquinic acid has antioxidant activity.
2. 1,4-Dicaffeoylquinic acid is a potent and highly selective class of HIV-1 integrase inhibitors, inhibitsHIV-1 replication in MT-2 cell culture at non-toxic concentrations.
1. 1,5-Dicaffeoylquinic acid has neuroprotective effects, it can prevent Aβ(42)-induced neurotoxicity through the activation of PI3K/Akt followed by the stimulation of Trk A, then the inhibition of GSK3β as well as the modulation of Bcl-2/Bax.
2. 1,5-Dicaffeoylquinic acid has antioxidant activity, and is stronger than that of ascorbic acid.
3. 1,5-Dicaffeoylquinic acid has protective effects against MPP~+ induces neurotoxicity of PC12 Cells, it (50 umol/L) pretreatment can inhibit the MPP+-induced up-regulation of the expression of α-synuclein mRNA and protein.
4. 1, 5-Dicaffeoylquinic acid can mediate glutathione synthesis through activation of Nrf2 protects against OGD/reperfusion-induced oxidative stress in astrocytes.
1. 10-Gingerol has anti-neuroinflammatory capacity.
2. 10-Gingerol effectively inhibits the growth of the oral pathogens, and inhibits exogenous ghrelin deacylation.
3. 10-Gingerol induces [Ca2+]i rise by causing Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca2+ influx from non-L-type Ca2+ channels in SW480 cancer cells.
4. 10-Gingerol-induced apoptosis was accompanied by phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) family, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 MAPK (p38), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK).
1. 10-Hydroxycamptothecin is an indole alkaloid isolated from a Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminata, and has a wide spectrum of anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo mainly through inhibitory effects on topoisomerase I.
2. 10-Hydroxycamptothecine can prevent fibroblast proliferation and epidural scar adhesion after laminectomy in rats.
3. 10-Hydroxycamptothecin has antiangiogenic potential.