1. 10-Shogaol, as an antioxidant for human skin cell growth and a migration enhancer with potential to be a novel wound repair agent.
2. 8- and 10-Shogaol have similar metabolic profiles to -shogaol and exhibit similar toxicity toward human colon cancer cells.
1. The progesterone derivatives 11 alpha- and 11 beta-hydroxyprogesterone are potent inhibitors of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (isoforms 1 and 2) in vitro and can confer mineralocorticoid activity on corticosterone in the rat in vivo.
2. 11 alpha- and 11 beta-Hydroxyprogesterone are potently hypertensinogenic in the rat and that this activity depends on an intact adrenal and at least in part on the activation of mineralocorticoid receptors.
3. 11beta-Hydroxyprogesterone acts as a mineralocorticoid agonist in stimulating Na+ absorption in mammalian principal cortical collecting duct cells.
1. 11-Keto-beta-boswellic acid possesses significant anti-inflammatory activity.
2. 11-Keto-beta-boswellic acid exerts multi-focal action in cancer cells while it required 10-fold higher the concentration to produce cytotoxicity in normal human PBMC and gingival cell line, and therefore, may find usefulness in the management of human leukemia.
3. 11-Keto-beta-boswellic acid , a novel Nrf2 activator, it can increase the Nrf2 and HO-1 expression, which provides protection against oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced oxidative insult.
4. 11-Keto-beta-boswellic acid reveals anti-tumoral activity against both ascitic and solid murine tumor models, it induces apoptosis in HL-60 cells due to the inhibition of topoisomerases I and II.
5. 11-Keto-beta-boswellic acid derived amides and monodesmosidic saponins induce apoptosis in breast and cervical cancers cells.
6. 11-Keto-beta-boswellic acid is a selective 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibitor, it exerts dose dependent cardioprotective effect manifested by dose-dependent reduction in serum lactate dehydrogenase.
1. 11-O-Galloylbergenin shows significant analgesic activity at doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg against formalin test in rats, and it exhibits significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced paw edema model at doses of 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg.
2. 11-O-Galloylbergenin shows good antioxidant and antiplasmodial activities, the EC50 values are 7.45±0.2 ug/mL and 5.39±0.28 ug/mL in DPPH antioxidant assay and reducing power assay respectively, while IC50 value for antiplasmodial assay is less than 2.5 uM.
3. 11-O-Galloylbergenin shows significant urease inhibitory potential with IC50 value of 38.6±1.5 uM.
1. 11-Oxo-mogroside V , a sweet element of Siraitia grosvenori (SG) extract, provides the anti-oxidative property of SG which might reduce the atherogenic potential of low-density lipoprotein(LDL).
2. 11-Oxo-mogroside V exhibits the remarkable inhibitory effect on two-stage carcinogenesis test of mouse skin tumor induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as an initiator and TPA as a promoter.
3. 11-Oxo-mogroside V exhibits a remarkable inhibitory effect on *OH-induced DNA damage with EC50 = 3.09 microg/ml.
1. 12-Hydroxyjasmonic acid glucoside is a COI1-JAZ-independent activator of leaf-closing movement in samanea saman.
1. 12-O-Methylcarnosic acid is effective preventing gastric lesions.
2. 12-O-Methylcarnosic acid has antioxidant activity.
3. 12-O-Methylcarnosic acid can suppress melanin production with downregulation of tyrosinase expression in HMV-II melanoma cells.
4. 12-O-Methylcarnosic acid is able to significantly activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, it may have anti-diabetic activity.
1. 14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DDA) has hypotensive action, it causes negative chronotropic action and antagonised isoproterenol-induced positive chronotropic actions in a non-competitive and dose-dependent manner.
2. DDA can retain the anti-inflammatory activities of andrographolide for asthma probably through the inhibition of NF-κB, it may be considered as a safer analogue of andrographolide for the potential treatment of asthma.
3. DDA can effectively ameliorate astrocytic pro-inflammatory reactions and prevent PC12 cell death with different efficacies, it may be candidates for treatment of spinal-cord injury and neurodegeneration.
4. DDA shows more potent cytotoxicity against human promonocytic leukemia (THP-1) cells than adherent cancer cell lines, it also shows antiproliferative action on both THP-1 and Jurkat cancer cell lines with low IC50 values.