11-Keto-beta-boswellic acid, a novel Nrf2 activator, and a selective 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibitor; it exerts dose dependent cardioprotective effect manifested by dose-dependent reduction in serum lactate dehydrogenase; and it can increase the Nrf2 and HO-1 expression, which provides protection against oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced oxidative insult. 11-Keto-beta-boswellic acid possesses significant anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumoral activities.
1. 11-O-Galloylbergenin shows significant analgesic activity at doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg against formalin test in rats, and it exhibits significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced paw edema model at doses of 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg.
2. 11-O-Galloylbergenin shows good antioxidant and antiplasmodial activities, the EC50 values are 7.45±0.2 ug/mL and 5.39±0.28 ug/mL in DPPH antioxidant assay and reducing power assay respectively, while IC50 value for antiplasmodial assay is less than 2.5 uM.
3. 11-O-Galloylbergenin shows significant urease inhibitory potential with IC50 value of 38.6±1.5 uM.
11-Oxo-mogroside V is a natural sweetener, exhibits strong antioxidant activity. It exhibits significant inhibitory effects on reactive oxygen species (O2-, H2O2 and *OH) with EC50 of 4.79, 16.52, and 146.17 μg/mL, respectively. 11-Oxo-mogroside V exhibits the remarkable inhibitory effect on two-stage carcinogenesis test of mouse skin tumor induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as an initiator and TPA as a promoter.
1. 12-Hydroxyjasmonic acid glucoside is a COI1-JAZ-independent activator of leaf-closing movement in samanea saman.
1. 12-O-Methylcarnosic acid is effective preventing gastric lesions.
2. 12-O-Methylcarnosic acid has antioxidant activity.
3. 12-O-Methylcarnosic acid can suppress melanin production with downregulation of tyrosinase expression in HMV-II melanoma cells.
4. 12-O-Methylcarnosic acid is able to significantly activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, it may have anti-diabetic activity.
1. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate has skin tumor-promoting potential.
2. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate induces endogenous FBXO10 mRNA and FBXO10 protein in Jurkat cells, a human T cell line.
3. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate provokes cell motility through regulating the expression and function of S100A14 in a KLF4-dependent manner.
13-Hydroxylupanine is a natural product from Cytisus scoparius.
14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide has hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-asthma, and anti-cancer actions, it causes negative chronotropic action and antagonised isoproterenol-induced positive chronotropic actions in a non-competitive and dose-dependent manner. 14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide can effectively ameliorate astrocytic pro-inflammatory reactions and prevent PC12 cell death with different efficacies, it may be candidates for treatment of spinal-cord injury and neurodegeneration.
1. 14-Deoxyandrographolide desensitizes hepatocytes to TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis through the release of TNFRSF1A.
2. 14-Deoxyandrographolide has hepatoprotective activity, mediates activation of adenylate cyclase-cAMP signaling leading to up-regulation of cNOS, may provide a promising approach in the prevention of liver diseases during chronic alcoholism.