1. 2α,3α,24-Trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, a triterpenoid phytoalexin, isolated from peel of unripe fruits of nectarine (Prunus persica cv Fantasia), shows antifungal activity against the fungus mentioned.
2. 2α,3α,24-Trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid shows in vitro cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines including PLC,Hep3B,HepG2,HeLa,SW480,MCF-7 and Bel7402.
2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxyldiphenylethylene-2-O-glucoside(TSG) has potential to the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's diseases, it not only prevents over-expression of α-synuclein at an early stage, but also reverses the increased expression of α-synuclein and inhibits the aggregation at the late stage of Tg mice. TSG suppresses PDGF-BB-induced PASMCs proliferation is associated with an inhibition of AKT / GSK3β signaling pathways. TGS, emodin and physcion also have the lipid regulation activity to an overall synergy.
1. 2,3,8-tri-O-Methyl ellagic acid has antimicrobial activity agaist Vibro cholera, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli .
20(R)-Ginsenoside Rg3 has anticarcinogenic, neuroprotective, anti-aging and antifatigue activities, it has a wide spectrum of targets including caspase-3, MMP-2, MMP-9,HIF-1α,VEGF,IL-1,IL-6 and TNF-α.
20(R)-Ginsenoside Rh2, a minor stereoisomer of ginsenoside Rh2, possesses matrix metalloproteinase inhibitory. 20(R)-Ginsenoside Rh2 has anticancer, anti- proliferation, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities, it also shows selective osteoclastgenesis inhibitory activity. 20(R)-Ginsenoside Rh2 reduce apoptotic rate significantly, enhance the activity of caspase-3 and induces apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.
Ginsenoside Rh2 has memory-enhancing ,anti-osteoporosis, antitumor, antidiabetic, antiallergic, and anti-inflammatory effects, it potently protects ischemia-reperfusion brain injury, also inhibits prostaglandin-E_2 synthesis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. It can inhibit the tendency of apoptosis, and reverse the impaired β-cell growth potential by modulating Akt/Foxo1/PDX-1 signaling pathway and regulating cell cycle proteins; it suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in vitro and in vivo through the regulation of c-Fos and NFATc1 expressions, not excluding the involvement of NF-κB and ERK.
1. 20-Deoxocarnosol , the main phenolic abietane present in aerial parts of the Chilean medicinal plant, has antioxidant activity of measuring the decay of the radical cation diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH).
2. 20-Deoxocarnosol exhibits non-specific antiprotozoal activity due to high cytotoxicity.
20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E) is a naturally occurring ecdysteroid hormone which controls the ecdysis (moulting) and metamorphosis of arthropods. 20E could as ingredients in nutritional supplements for various sports, particularly bodybuilding; it induces autophagy and caspase activity, it slowly reduces food consumption and then indirectly induces a state of starvation resulting in the elevation of the mRNA levels of InR , IRS , PI3K110 , and PDK in the Bombyx fat body during molting and pupation, and it inhibits innate immunity in the fat body during Bombyx postembryonic development.
Ginsenoside Rg2 may have a therapeutic potential for type 2 diabetic patients, it suppresses the hepatic glucose production via AMPK-induced phosphorylation of GSK3βand induction of SHP gene expression .Ginsenoside Rg2 can protect H9c2 cells against H2O2- induced injury through its actions of anti-oxidant and anti-apoptosis.20R-Ginsenoside Rg2 inhibits the cytokine interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α)-induced reduction in gap junction-mediated intercellular communication (GJIC).
1. 24-Methylenecycloartan-3-ol and methyl caffeate show weak activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.