2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxyldiphenylethylene-2-O-glucoside(TSG) has potential to the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's diseases, it not only prevents over-expression of α-synuclein at an early stage, but also reverses the increased expression of α-synuclein and inhibits the aggregation at the late stage of Tg mice. TSG suppresses PDGF-BB-induced PASMCs proliferation is associated with an inhibition of AKT / GSK3β signaling pathways. TGS, emodin and physcion also have the lipid regulation activity to an overall synergy.
1. 2,3,8-tri-O-Methyl ellagic acid has antimicrobial activity agaist Vibro cholera, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli .
20(R)-Ginsenoside Rg3 has anticarcinogenic, neuroprotective, anti-aging and antifatigue activities, it has a wide spectrum of targets including caspase-3, MMP-2, MMP-9,HIF-1α,VEGF,IL-1,IL-6 and TNF-α.
20(R)-Ginsenoside Rh2, a minor stereoisomer of ginsenoside Rh2, possesses matrix metalloproteinase inhibitory. 20(R)-Ginsenoside Rh2 has anticancer, anti- proliferation, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities, it also shows selective osteoclastgenesis inhibitory activity. 20(R)-Ginsenoside Rh2 reduce apoptotic rate significantly, enhance the activity of caspase-3 and induces apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.
Ginsenoside Rh2 has memory-enhancing ,anti-osteoporosis, antitumor, antidiabetic, antiallergic, and anti-inflammatory effects, it potently protects ischemia-reperfusion brain injury, also inhibits prostaglandin-E_2 synthesis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. It can inhibit the tendency of apoptosis, and reverse the impaired β-cell growth potential by modulating Akt/Foxo1/PDX-1 signaling pathway and regulating cell cycle proteins; it suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in vitro and in vivo through the regulation of c-Fos and NFATc1 expressions, not excluding the involvement of NF-κB and ERK.
1. 20-Deoxocarnosol , the main phenolic abietane present in aerial parts of the Chilean medicinal plant, has antioxidant activity of measuring the decay of the radical cation diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH).
2. 20-Deoxocarnosol exhibits non-specific antiprotozoal activity due to high cytotoxicity.
20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E) is a naturally occurring ecdysteroid hormone which controls the ecdysis (moulting) and metamorphosis of arthropods. 20E could as ingredients in nutritional supplements for various sports, particularly bodybuilding; it induces autophagy and caspase activity, it slowly reduces food consumption and then indirectly induces a state of starvation resulting in the elevation of the mRNA levels of InR , IRS , PI3K110 , and PDK in the Bombyx fat body during molting and pupation, and it inhibits innate immunity in the fat body during Bombyx postembryonic development.
1. Ginsenoside Rg2 can protect H9c2 cells against H2O2- induced injury through its actions of anti-oxidant and anti-apoptosis.
2. Ginsenoside Rg2 suppresses the hepatic glucose production via AMPK-induced phosphorylation of GSK3βand induction of SHP gene expression, it may have a therapeutic potential for type 2 diabetic patients.
3. 20R-Ginsenoside Rg2 inhibits the cytokine interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α)-induced reduction in gap junction-mediated intercellular communication (GJIC).
1. 24-Methylenecycloartan-3-ol and methyl caffeate show weak activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.
1. 25S-Inokosterone and 25R-inokosterone exhibit potent inhibition (80-95% at ) against TNF-expression levels in A23187 plus phorbol-myrisrate acetate-induced RBL-2H3 cells, they have excellent anti-atopy activity, thus they could be used to a large range of functional anti-atopy cosmetics.