Ganoderiol F has anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and anti-HIV activity, it inhibits activity of topoisomerases in vitro, and it inhibits human immunodeficiency virus-1 protease with IC(50) values of 20-40 microM. It induced HO-1 expression, activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase EKR and up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16 and suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production.
1. Testosterone prevents pancreatic β-cell apoptosis due to glucotoxicity through reduction of the expression of ATGR1 and its signaling pathway.
2. Testosterone was found to be the major determinant of the observed sexual dimorphism. Further study into the role of Testosterone for liver inflammation could lead to novel treatment targets in human autoimmune liver diseases.
3. The association of Testosterone with CEE impairs the benefits of estrogen on OVX-associated endothelial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species generation in rat aorta by a mechanism that involves phosphorylation of the cytosolic NADPH-oxidase subunit p47(phox).
4. Testosterone therapy for men with symptomatic androgen deficiency to induce and maintain secondary sex characteristics and to improve their sexual function, sense of well-being, muscle mass and strength, and bone mineral density.
5. Testosterone replacement therapy reduces insulin resistance and improves glycaemic control in hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes.
6. Testosterone inhibits estrogen-induced mammary epithelial proliferation and suppresses estrogen receptor expression.
7. Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone can inhibit adipocyte differentiation in vitro through an AR-mediated nuclear translocation of beta-catenin and activation of downstream Wnt signaling.
1. Danaidone and viridifloric β-lactone induce significant electroantennogram responses on the female's antennae, suggesting their principal role together with other hairpencil components as a sex pheromone to seduce females.