Ganoderiol F has anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and anti-HIV activity, it inhibits activity of topoisomerases in vitro, and it inhibits human immunodeficiency virus-1 protease with IC(50) values of 20-40 microM. It induced HO-1 expression, activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase EKR and up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16 and suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production.
Testosterone prevents pancreatic β-cell apoptosis due to glucotoxicity through reduction of the expression of ATGR1 and its signaling pathway.Testosterone replacement therapy reduces insulin resistance and improves glycaemic control in hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes. Testosterone can inhibit adipocyte differentiation in vitro through an AR-mediated nuclear translocation of beta-catenin and activation of downstream Wnt signaling.Testosterone inhibits estrogen-induced mammary epithelial proliferation and suppresses estrogen receptor expression.
1. Danaidone and viridifloric β-lactone induce significant electroantennogram responses on the female's antennae, suggesting their principal role together with other hairpencil components as a sex pheromone to seduce females.