1. (−)-Asarinin and (-)-epiasarinin are non-competitive inhibitors against the Δ5-desaturase in rat liver microsomes, the Kis for rat liver Δ5-desaturase being 2.8×10−4 and 7.1×10−4 M, respectively.
2. Asarinin is a mammalian lignan precursor.
3. Asarinin has immunosuppression activity in vitro.
4. Asarinin can decrease peripheral blood concentration of interleukin (IL)-12 and inhibit the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3), which means asarinin may have a role on TLR4 pathway and produced prolongation of allograft heart survival.
1. Bilobalide can protect PC12 cells from A beta 25-35-induced cytotoxicity, it dose-dependently attenuates the cytotoxic effect of A beta 25-35.
2. Bilobalide exerts protective and trophic effects on neurons, the PI3K/Akt pathway may be involved in the protective effects of bilobalide.
3. Bilobalide possesses anticonvulsant activity, the anticonvulsant effect is due to elevation of GABA levels, possibly through potentiation of glutamic acid decarboxylase activity and enhancement of the protein amount of 67 kDa glutamic acid decarboxylase by bilobalide.
4. PAF(platelet-activating factor) and its receptor may be involved in the cellular response of cardiomyocytes to hypoxia and that bilobalide may interact with this receptor to exert its cardioprotective effects.
5. Bilobalide and its derivatives( contain trilactone structure) have insecticidal activity.
(-)-Catechin gallate is a minor constituent in green tea catechins, it inhibits the activity of COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. Catechin gallate (IC50=53 microM) shows cytotoxicity against the colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line HCT116, it also exhibits strong anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities on pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. Catechin 3-gallate is a good inhibitor of maltase, with IC50 values of 62 uM, it inhibits both α-glucosidases and rabbit glycogen phosphorylase (GP) in vitro and in cell culture, would contribute to the protection or improvement of type 2 diabetes.
1. (-)-Epiafzelechin exhibits a dose-dependent inhibition on the COX activity with an IC50 value of 15 microM, it exhibits about 3-fold weaker inhibitory potency on the enzyme activity than indomethacin as a positive control.
2. (-)-Epiafzelechin exhibits significant anti-inflammatory activity on carrageenin-induced mouse paw edema when the compound (100 mg/kg) was orally administrated at 1 h before carrageenin treatment.
3. (-)-Epicatechin shows zero and/or the lowest activities against pancreatic lipase (IC50 > 20 microM).
4. Epiafzelechin has antioxidant properties.
(-)-Epicatechin gallate can effectively stimulates osteoblast differentiation, it has antioxidative effect against lipid peroxidation when phospholipid bilayers are exposed to aqueous oxygen radicals.
(-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate is an antioxidant polyphenol flavonoid form green tea, and inhibits the activation of EGFR, HER2 and HER3, with antitumor activity. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate treatment enduring to cardio protection at mitochondrial level, it has protective effects against βA-induced neuronal apoptosis through scavenging reactive oxygen species, which may be beneficial for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease.
1. (-)-Epigallocatechin(EGC) has prominent antiplatelet activity and blood anticoagulation in a dose-dependent manner.
2. (-)-Epigallocatechin (EGC) can suppress oxidation of plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro.
3. Epigallocatechin activates haem oxygenase-1 expression via protein kinase Cdelta and Nrf2.
4. Cu(2+) with (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) facilitated DNA cleavage, while Ag+ with EGC showed a strong repressive effect, the other metal ions examined showed little effect.
1. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-(3''-O-methyl)gallate shows a strong antioxidative activity, it also has a strong cytotoxic activity.
2. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl)-gallate has potent antiallergic activity, it can negatively regulate basophil activation through the suppression of FcepsilonRI expression.
3. (-)-Epicatechin 3-(3-O-methylgallate) has anti-inflammatory effect, it can suppress the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation of mouse ears, its activity is stronger than those of indomethacin and glycyrrhetinic acid, the normally used anti-inflammatory agents.
4. Epigallocatechin-3-(3''-O-methyl)gallate has the function for cold preservation of primary rat hepatocytes.
1. Gallocatechins have antioxidant potential.