1. (−)-Asarinin and (-)-epiasarinin are non-competitive inhibitors against the Δ5-desaturase in rat liver microsomes, the Kis for rat liver Δ5-desaturase being 2.8×10−4 and 7.1×10−4 M, respectively.
2. Asarinin is a mammalian lignan precursor.
3. Asarinin has immunosuppression activity in vitro.
4. Asarinin can decrease peripheral blood concentration of interleukin (IL)-12 and inhibit the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3), which means asarinin may have a role on TLR4 pathway and produced prolongation of allograft heart survival.
Bilobalide possesses anticonvulsant, insecticidal, and cardioprotective effects. Bilobalide exerts protective and trophic effects on neurons, the PI3K/Akt pathway may be involved in the protective effects of bilobalide; it also can protect PC12 cells from A beta 25-35-induced cytotoxicity, it dose-dependently attenuates the cytotoxic effect of A beta 25-35.
(-)-Catechin gallate is a minor constituent in green tea catechins, it inhibits the activity of COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. Catechin gallate (IC50=53 microM) shows cytotoxicity against the colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line HCT116, it also exhibits strong anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities on pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. Catechin 3-gallate is a good inhibitor of maltase, with IC50 values of 62 uM, it inhibits both α-glucosidases and rabbit glycogen phosphorylase (GP) in vitro and in cell culture, would contribute to the protection or improvement of type 2 diabetes.
1. (+)-Dihydroquercetin has antioxidant activity, exhibits neuroprotective actions against the oxidative injuries induced in cortical cell cultures.
2. Dihydroquercetin-rich extract (Lavitol) derived from the Dahurian larch tree, used as a food additive and as a dietary supplement ingredient.
1. (-)-Epiafzelechin exhibits a dose-dependent inhibition on the COX activity with an IC50 value of 15 microM, it exhibits about 3-fold weaker inhibitory potency on the enzyme activity than indomethacin as a positive control.
2. (-)-Epiafzelechin exhibits significant anti-inflammatory activity on carrageenin-induced mouse paw edema when the compound (100 mg/kg) was orally administrated at 1 h before carrageenin treatment.
3. (-)-Epicatechin shows zero and/or the lowest activities against pancreatic lipase (IC50 > 20 microM).
4. Epiafzelechin has antioxidant properties.
(-)-Epicatechin gallate can effectively stimulates osteoblast differentiation, it has antioxidative effect against lipid peroxidation when phospholipid bilayers are exposed to aqueous oxygen radicals.
(-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate is an antioxidant polyphenol flavonoid form green tea, and inhibits the activation of EGFR, HER2 and HER3, with antitumor activity. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate treatment enduring to cardio protection at mitochondrial level, it has protective effects against βA-induced neuronal apoptosis through scavenging reactive oxygen species, which may be beneficial for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease.
1. (-)-Epigallocatechin(EGC) has prominent antiplatelet activity and blood anticoagulation in a dose-dependent manner.
2. (-)-Epigallocatechin (EGC) can suppress oxidation of plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro.
3. Epigallocatechin activates haem oxygenase-1 expression via protein kinase Cdelta and Nrf2.
4. Cu(2+) with (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) facilitated DNA cleavage, while Ag+ with EGC showed a strong repressive effect, the other metal ions examined showed little effect.
1. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-(3''-O-methyl)gallate shows a strong antioxidative activity, it also has a strong cytotoxic activity.
2. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl)-gallate has potent antiallergic activity, it can negatively regulate basophil activation through the suppression of FcepsilonRI expression.
3. (-)-Epicatechin 3-(3-O-methylgallate) has anti-inflammatory effect, it can suppress the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation of mouse ears, its activity is stronger than those of indomethacin and glycyrrhetinic acid, the normally used anti-inflammatory agents.
4. Epigallocatechin-3-(3''-O-methyl)gallate has the function for cold preservation of primary rat hepatocytes.