1. 3α-Akebonoic acid shows interesting in vitro growth inhibitory activity against human tumor A549 and HeLa cell lines, it also shows significant in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.
2. 3α-Akebonoic acid can interfer with presenilin-1 (PS1)/ β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) interaction and reduces Aβ production, the chemical interference of PS1/BACE1 interaction is a promising strategy for Alzheimer’s disease therapeutics.
Ginkgolide J has neuroprotective activity, it can prevent A beta(1-42) induced inhibition of long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of mouse hippocampal slices, it is also capable of inhibiting cell death of rodent hippocampal neurons caused by A beta(1-42). Ginkgolide J can inhibit platelet aggregation induced by ADP or PAF.
(+)-Taxifolin is an inhibitor of aggregation of the 42-residue amyloid β-protein, it has preventive effects against Alzheimer's disease-like pathogenesis in vivo. It is also a weak inhibitor of cytochrome b5 reduction (IC50=9.8μM).
Alpha-lipoic acid has become a common ingredient in multivitamin formulas, anti-aging supplements, and even pet food, it is well-defined as a therapy for preventing diabetic polyneuropathies, and scavenges free radicals, chelates metals, and restores intracellular glutathione levels which otherwise decline with age. Alpha-lipoic acid has therapeutic effects on joint inflammation and erosion in an animal model via NF-kappa B down regulation, it inhibits TNF-alpha induced NF-kappa B activation through blocking of MEKK1-MKK4-IKK signaling cascades. Lipoic acid is a novel treatment for Alzheimer's disease and related dementias.
Picrosides exhibit significant learning and memory deficits, just as Alzheimer's disease(AD) in human.