Progesterone is an endogenous steroid hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species. A potent agonist of the nuclear progesterone receptor (nPR) with Kd of 1 nM; An agonist of the membrane progesterone receptors(mPRs); An antagonist of the σ1 receptor. Stimulation of breast cell tumorigenesis and tumor growth accompanying Progesterone treatment is due to the Progesterone metabolite 5αP, and that breast tumorigenesis can be blocked with the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride.
Dehydroepiandrosterone is an important endogenous steroid hormone, which is an androgen receptor antagonist and an estrogen receptor agonist. Dehydroepiandrosterone can treat symptoms, and signs of vulvovaginal atrophy along with libido in postmenopausal women. Dehydroepiandrosterone is a neuroactive hormone, it in co-operation with other hormones and transmitters significantly affects some aspects of human mood, and modifies some features of human emotions and behavior; it has been reported that its administration can increase feelings of well-being and is useful in ameliorating atypical depressive disorders, it has neuroprotective and antiglucocorticoid activity and modifies immune reactions.
Bornyl acetate shows highly active whitening and antioxidant activities, has potential applications in cosmeceutical materials. Bornyl acetate has anti-inflammatory activity, may be developed as a preventive agent for lung inflammatory diseases and osteoarthritis; it also has an antiabortive effect through modulation of immunological balance at maternal-fetal interface.