Quercetin is one of the most prominent dietary antioxidants, it is claimed to exert beneficial health effects, this includes protection against various diseases such as osteoporosis, certain forms of cancer, pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases but also against aging. It is a stimulator of recombinant SIRT1 and also a PI3K inhibitor with IC50 of 2.4±0.6 μM, 3.0±0.0 μM and 5.4±0.3 μM for PI3K γ, PI3K δ and PI3K β, respectively. It also attenuated the function VEGFR, androgen receptor and the expressions of NF-κB, IL Receptor, FAK, ERK,Nrf2.
1. Alpha-lipoic acid has become a common ingredient in multivitamin formulas, anti-aging supplements, and even pet food, it is well-defined as a therapy for preventing diabetic polyneuropathies, and scavenges free radicals, chelates metals, and restores intracellular glutathione levels which otherwise decline with age.
2. Alpha-lipoic acid can enhance glucose transport and utilization in different experimental and animal models, it can improve insulin sensitivity in patients with type-2 diabetes.
3. Lipoic acid is a novel treatment for Alzheimer's disease and related dementias.
4. Alpha-lipoic acid has therapeutic effects on joint inflammation and erosion in an animal model via NF-kappa B down regulation, it inhibits TNF-alpha induced NF-kappa B activation through blocking of MEKK1-MKK4-IKK signaling cascades.
1. Cycloastragenol and astragaloside IV can suppress ROS-associated ER stress and then inhibit TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome activation with regulation of AMPK activity, and thereby ameliorate endothelial dysfunction by inhibiting inflammation and reducing cell apoptosis.
2. Cycloastragenol stimulates telomerase activity in human neonatal keratinocytes and rat neuronal cells, and induces CREB activation followed by tert and bcl2 expression, cycloastragenol may have a novel therapeutic role in depression.
3. Cycloastragenol can suppress the accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplet in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
4. Cycloastragenol and astragaloside IV have been shown to improve the proliferative response of CD8+ T lymphocytes from HIV-infected patients by upregulating telomerase activity, they also may exert their cellular effects through the activation of the Src/MEK/ERK pathway.
5. Cycloastragenol can remarkably inhibit CYP3A4 and activate CYP2E1 in rats.
6. Cycloastragenol has been shown to extend T cell proliferation by increasing telomarase activity showing that it may also help delay the onset of cellular aging; it is an extraordinary wound healing agent; it inhibits the apoptosis of PC12 induced by 6-OHDA, may be as potential neuroprotective agents in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
Epifriedelanol has antitumor activity, it can reduce cellular senescence in human primary cells and may be used to develop dietary supplements or cosmetics that modulate tissue aging or aging-associated diseases. Epifriedelanol exhibits significant inhibition of NF-kappa B, it may be used to treat asthma.
1. PNC1 (pyrazinamidase/nicotinamidase 1) is a longevity gene that is responsive to all stimuli that extend lifespan, nicotinamide depletion is sufficient to activate Sir2 and that this is the mechanism by which PNC1 regulates longevity, thus, nicotinamide and PNC1 can govern lifespan extension by calorie restriction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
2. Nicotinamide and its derivatives can increase growth hormone and prolactin synthesis in cultured GH3 cells: role for ADP-ribosylation in modulating specific gene expression.
3. Nicotinamide mononucleotide activation of new DNA-dependent polyadenylic acid synthesizing nuclear enzyme.
4. Nicotinamide has insulinotropic action, it can induce differentiation and maturation of human fetal pancreatic islet cells.
5. Nicotinamide may represent a safe treatment for Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies, and that phosphorylation of tau at Thr231 may regulate tau stability.