1. Quercetin has anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, antioxidant and antitoxic effects.
2. Quercetin is a candidate for preventing obesity-related diseases.
3. Quercetin displays inhibition against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.
4. Quercetin induces apoptosis and influences protein and lipid kinase signaling pathways.
5. Quercetin reduces cancer risk of prostate, ovary, breast, gastric and colon cells.
6. Quercetin has protective effects against chronic mixed reflux esophagitis in rats (Rattus norvegicus) by inhibiting the NF-kappaB p65 and interleukin-8 signaling pathway.
1. Cycloastragenol has anti-aging property.
2. Cycloastragenol increases telomerase activity and proliferative capacity,stimulates the repair of DNA damage by activating telomerase,a nucleoprotein enzyme which catalyses synthesis and growth of telomeric DNA.
1. Ginsenoside Rb1 has anti-oxidative damage ,anti-renal interstitial fibrosis, immunostimulatory and anticancer effects.
2. Ginsenoside Rb1 promotes neurotransmitter release by modulating phosphorylation of synapsins through a cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathway.
1. Ginsenoside-Rg1 (G-Rg1) is a functional ligand of glucocorticoid receptor(GR),can boost the production of insulin receptors.
2. G-Rg1 stimulates the creation of new blood vessels and wound healing;relaxes and widens blood vessels and lowers blood pressure.
3. G-Rg1 is a novel class of potent phytoestrogen,has estrogen-like activity.
1. Ginsenoside-Rd is a potential neuroprotective agent via antioxidative which may be responsible for the intervention of GSH/GSSG redox status.
2. Ginsenoside-Rd is an inhibitor for inhibiting Ca2+ entry through receptor- operated and store-operated without effects on voltage-dependent inward Ca2+ current and Ca2+ release in vascular smooth muscle cells.
3. Ginsenoside-Rd is a lead to develop novel chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive agents against human cervical cancer by inhibiting HeLa cell proliferation, inducing cell apoptosis through down-regulating Bcl-2 expression,up-regulating Bax expression,lowering the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and activating the caspase-3 pathway.
4. Ginsenoside-Rd exhibites oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation, probably by preventing oxygen free radicals from attacking the cell membranes.