1. Rhein has been proved effective in treatment of experimental diabetic nephropathy (DN), one of the mechanism is the Inhibition of the hexosamine pathway.
2. Rhein has been shown to induce apoptosis in several cancer cell lines, and induces apoptosis in A-549 cells via a Ca2+ -dependent mitochondrial pathway.
3. Rhein has protective effect on liver injury and can inhibit liver flbrosis induced by CCl4/ethanol in rats,the mechanisms possibly contribute to its action of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, also associated with its effect of inhibiting TGF-β1 and suppressing the activation of hepatic stellate cells.
1. Ruscogenin has been found to exert significant anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic activities; the possible mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity is role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB.
2. Ruscogenin significantly attenuates LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI )via inhibiting expressions of TF and iNOS and NF-κB p65 activation, indicates that it as a potential therapeutic agent for ALI or sepsis.
3. Ruscogenin can protect the brain against ischemic damage caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and this effect may be through downregulation of NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses.
4. Ruscogenin inhibits activation of neutrophil through cPLA 2 , PAK, Akt, MAPKs, cAMP, and PKA signaling pathways.
5. Ruscogenin may attenuate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced steatohepatitis through downregulation of NF- κB-mediated inflammatory responses, reducing hepatic lipogenic gene expression, and upregulating proteins in β-oxidation pathway.
1. Lovastatin has a powerful inhibitory effect on HMG-CoA reductase.
2. Lovastatin has a potential application to treat PD via antioxidant effect.
3. Lovastatin promotes fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition, by regulating the production of CCN2 in human gingival fibroblasts.
1. Morroniside would act as a regulator of hepatic inflammatory reactions and lipid metabolism in db/db mice.
2. Morroniside exhibits protective effects against diabetic renal damage and human umbilical vein endothelial cells , by inhibiting hyperglycemia and oxidative stress.
3. Morroniside can notably protect the brain from damage induced by focal cerebral ischemia which might be related to morroniside antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties in the brain.
1. Astilbin may have a guiding function in turtle jelly production.
2. Astilbin PVP K30 and surfactant combined carrier has a strong potential to improve oral bioavailability.
3. Astilbin in vivo and the role of different intestinal bacteria in the metabolism of natural compounds.
4. Astilbin might be due to block of the myocardial inflammatory cascade via the HMGB1-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway.
5. Astilbin possesses anti-inflammatory properties, could be a candidate drug for inflammatory bowel disease by mediating the regulatory functions of DCs.