Rhein has many pharmacological effects, including epatoprotective, nephroprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial activities, it has been proved effective in treatment of experimental diabetic nephropathy , one of the mechanism is the Inhibition of the hexosamine pathway. Rhein has protective effect on liver injury, the mechanisms possibly contribute to its action of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, also associated with its effect of inhibiting TGF-β1 and suppressing the activation of hepatic stellate cells.
1. Ruscogenin has been found to exert significant anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic activities; the possible mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity is role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB.
2. Ruscogenin significantly attenuates LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI )via inhibiting expressions of TF and iNOS and NF-κB p65 activation, indicates that it as a potential therapeutic agent for ALI or sepsis.
3. Ruscogenin can protect the brain against ischemic damage caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and this effect may be through downregulation of NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses.
4. Ruscogenin inhibits activation of neutrophil through cPLA 2 , PAK, Akt, MAPKs, cAMP, and PKA signaling pathways.
5. Ruscogenin may attenuate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced steatohepatitis through downregulation of NF- κB-mediated inflammatory responses, reducing hepatic lipogenic gene expression, and upregulating proteins in β-oxidation pathway.
Lovastatin is an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase with IC50 of 3.4 nM in a cell-free assay, has a direct cellular effect independent of a cholesterol-lowering effect and delays the onset and progression of diabetic nephropathy. It has a potential application to treat PD via antioxidant effect, and it promotes fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition, by regulating the production of CCN2 in human gingival fibroblasts.
Morroniside has therapeutic effects on diabetic angiopathies, renal damage, lipid metabolism and inflammation and bone resorption. Morroniside can notably protect the brain from damage induced by focal cerebral ischemia which might be related to morroniside antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties in the brain.Morroniside can decrease the level of cycloxygenase(Cox) and it may be the mechanism of morroniside on inhibiting the platelet aggregation induced by ADP in rabbits.
1. Astilbin may act as an efficient therapeutic agent for arthritis like cyclosporine A but with less toxicity, its mechanism includes a selective suppression on lymphocyte functions via reducing MMP and NO production.
2. Astilbin can selectively facilitate the apoptosis of interleukin-2-dependentphytohemagglu- -tinin-activated Jurkat cells, the characteristic of astilbin may be of great significance for the treatment of a variety of immunologically related diseases.
3. Astilbin has insecticidal activity.
4. Astilbin shows strong antioxidant activity.
5. Astilbin alleviates contact hypersensitivity through a unique mechanism involving a negative cytokine regulation through stimulating IL-10, which is distinct from the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A.
6. Astilbin prevents concanavalin A-induced liver injury by reducing TNF-α production and T lymphocyte adhesion.
7. Astilbin has antibacterial activity, the minimal inhibitory quantity (MIQs) of astilbin ranges from 50 to 100 microg.
8. Astilbin can exert an early renal protective role to diabetic nephropathy (DN), inhibit production of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF).
9. Astilbin might be due to block of the myocardial inflammatory cascade via the HMGB1-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway.
10. Astilbin possesses anti-inflammatory properties, could be a candidate drug for inflammatory bowel disease by mediating the regulatory functions of DCs.