1. Esculentic acid has anti-inflammatory effect.
2. Esculentic acid has protective effects against LPS-induced endotoxic shock may be mediated, at least in part, by regulation the release of inflammatory cytokines and mediators, and protein expression of COX-2 in mice.
1. δ-Amyrone(13(18)-Oleanen-3-one), a specific inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, possesses anti-inflammatory effects, which may be relevant to the regulation of COX-2.
2. δ-Amyrone has protective activity on LPS-induced endotoxic shock, which is attributed to reducing NO production and mediating the pro-inflammatory cytokines, inhibited NF-κB expression.
3. δ-Amyrone exerts its protective effect on experimental gastric ulcer by inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathways, which subsequently reduces overproduction of the inducible enzymes iNOS and suppresses the release of the inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-6 and NO.
Hydrocortisone is a steroid hormone or glucocorticoid produced by the adrenal gland. Hydrocortisone improves outcome by limiting this immunosuppressive feedback loop via an interleukin-10-dependent elimination of dendritic cell by natural killer cells. Chronic administration of hydrocortisone leads to deficits in certain tests of cognitive function sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction and may contribute to the cognitive impairment reported in certain neuropsychiatric disorders. Hydrocortisone may reduce the extracellular spread of inflammation through the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases.
Yangambin is a selective antagonist of the cardiovascular effects of platelet activating factor (PAF); it has hypotensive effect, which is probably due to a peripheral vasodilatation that involves, at least, the inhibition the Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Yangambin has central nervous system activity, it presents a depressant activity in the open field, forced swimming and pentobarbital sleeping time tests.