Pimaric acid has potent anti-atherosclerotic activity with inhibitory action on matrix metalloproteinase-9 production and cell migration in TNF-α-induced human aortic smooth muscle cells. 4-epi-Pimaric acid shows antibacterial, anti-biofilm and anti-inflammatory potency , can be exploited for therapeutic application in oral microbial infections.
Ginsenoside has been reported to suppress platelet aggregation and to reduce gap junction-mediated intercellular communication, also as a novel anti-skin cancer drug with anti-proliferative and anti-migration features. Ginsenoside F1 has a potential for industrial cosmetic materials, it also has inhibitory effect of elastase and tyrosinase, it significantly reduces ultraviolet-B-induced cell death by maintaining constant levels of Bcl-2 and protects HaCaT cells from apoptosis caused by ultraviolet B irradiation.
Ethyl beta-D-fructofuranoside shows positive anti-tumor cells migration effects.
1. Gartanin possesses potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and antineoplastic properties.
2. Gartanin induces protective autophagy mainly by JNK-Bcl-2 pathway.
3. Gartanin is an androgen receptor degradation enhancer.
4. Gartanin is a potential neuroprotective agent against glutamate-induced oxidative injury partially through increasing Nrf-2-independed HO-1 and AMPK/SIRT1/PGC-1αsignaling pathways.
5. Gartanin has anti-proliferation effect in T98G cells, which is most likely via cell cycle arrest modulated by autophagy, which is regulated by PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling pathway, while its anti-migration effect is most likely via suppression of MMP-2/-9 activity which is involved in MAPK signalling pathway.
Harmine is a natural dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase ((DYRK)) inhibitor with neuroprotective, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. It regulates PPARγ expression through inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway, it also selectively binds to MAO-A and reversibly inhibits monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) but not the variant MAO-B. Harmine is able to induce beta cell proliferation, increase islet mass and improve glycemic control. Harmine induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation, migration and invasion of human gastric cancer cells, which may be mediated by down-regulation of COX-2 expression.