1,2-Dihydroxybenzene can induce spontaneous convulsive activity in the anaesthetized mouse and produce myoclonic jerks in the rat. It regulated 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels.
Coenzyme Q10, an essential cofactor of the electron transport chain, has neuroprotective effect in the cerebral ischemia via as a potent antioxidant and oxygen derived free radicals scavenger. Treatment with coenzyme Q10 in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) may be beneficial in patients with high risk of atherothrombosis. The coenzyme Q10 and alpha-lipoic acid supplementation can improve bladder function after outlet obstruction. The combination of Coenzyme Q10 and creatine may be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's Diseases. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation improves endothelial function of conduit arteries of the peripheral circulation in dyslipidaemic patients with Type II diabetes, the mechanism could involve increased endothelial release and/or activity of nitric oxide due to improvement in vascular oxidative stress.
Celastrol is a potent proteasome inhibitor for the chymotrypsin-like activity of a purified 20S proteasome with IC50 of 2.5 μM. Celastrol is also a novel HSP90 inhibitor, it has anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor , antiangiogenesis, and antioxidant activities. Celastrol inhibits Plasmodium falciparum enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase and inhibits VEGF receptors expression.
Trigonelline chloride, an alkaloid with potential antidiabetic activity, is present in considerable amounts in coffee. Trigonelline hydrochloride reduces diabetic auditory neuropathy by affecting β cell regeneration.
Harpagoside has anti-inflammatory effects, it blocks lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone loss in an inflammatory osteoporosis model, and it does not prevent ovariectomy-mediated bone erosion in a postmenopausal osteoporosis model, it may lead to a partial prevention of obesity-induced atherosclerosis by attenuating inflammatory responses. Harpagoside suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression through inhibition of NF-κB activation. Harpagoside exerts neuroprotection effect and ameliorates learning and memory deficit appears to be associated, at least in part, with up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) content as well as activating its downstream signaling pathways, e.g., MAPK/PI3K pathways.