Monotropein has anti-antiosteoporosis and anti-inflammatory activities, it exerts protective effects against IL-1β-induced apoptosis and catabolic responses on osteoarthritis chondrocytes and can increase osteoblastic bone formation and prevent bone loss in ovariectomized mice.
Momordin Ic has hypoglycemic, anticancer, anti-allergic, anti-pruritogenic, hepatoprotective, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. It accelerates gastrointestinal transit partially by stimulating synthesis of 5-HT to act through 5-HT(2), possibly 5-HT(2C) and/or 5-HT(2B) receptors, which, in turn, increases synthesis of prostaglandins. Momordin Ic induces apoptosis through oxidative stress-regulated mitochondrial dysfunction involving the MAPK and PI3K-mediated iNOS and HO-1 pathways.
1. Conocarpan has antinociceptive effects.
2. Conocarpan is quite active against S. aureus and B. subtilis with MIC of 6.25 micrograms/ml, it also shows activity against M. tuberculosis (MIC=15.6 ug/ml).
3. Conocarpan shows considerable activity against epimastigote forms of T. cruzi, with 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) of 8.0 microg/ml.
Oxysophocarpine shows anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, anticonvulsant, and anti-nociceptive effects, it also attenuates inflammatory pain by suppressing the levels of phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6.
1. 1beta-Hydroxybaccatin I possesses significant antinociceptive activity against p- benzoquinone-induced abdominal contractions.