1. Monotropein has anti-inflammatory activity, it exerts protective effects against IL-1β-induced apoptosis and catabolic responses on osteoarthritis chondrocytes.
2. Monotropein contributes to the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory action of Morinda officinalis root, monotropein (at 20, 30 mg/kg/d, p.o.) can significantly reduce stretching episodes and prolong action time in mice, it also can significantly reduce acute paw edema by carrageenan in rats.
3. Monotropein can increase osteoblastic bone formation and prevent bone loss in ovariectomized mice, it may serve as a new candidate or a leading compound for antiosteoporosis.
1. Momordin Ic is the active component of Kochiae Fructus, Kochiae Fructus not only inhibits humoral immunity but also influences cellular immunity, and should be recognized as a material for anti-allergic reactions; also, the mode of its anti-pruritogenic activity may be mediated by anti-allergic action.
2. Momordin Ic and oleanolic acid obtained from KF appear to contribute to alleviating the adverse effects of CCl4 treatment by enhancing the hepatic antioxidant defense system.
3. Momordin Ic accelerates gastrointestinal transit partially by stimulating synthesis of 5-HT to act through 5-HT(2), possibly 5-HT(2C) and/or 5-HT(2B) receptors, which, in turn, increases synthesis of prostaglandins.
4. Momordin Ic inhibited gastric emptying , is relative to serum glucose and, at least in part, mediated by capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves and the central nervous system.
5. Momordin Ic might represent a potential source of anticancer candidate, by inducing apoptosis through oxidative stress-regulated mitochondrial dysfunction involving the MAPK and PI3K-mediated iNOS and HO-1 pathways.
6. Momordin lc and its aglycone, oleanolic acid, have antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects, they could be active principles for rheumatoid arthritis.
7. Momordin Ic and oleanolic acid 3-O-glucuronide exhibit their hypoglycemic activity by suppressing the transfer of glucose from the stomach to the small intestine and by inhibiting glucose transport at the brush border of the small intestine.
1. Conocarpan has antinociceptive effects.
2. Conocarpan is quite active against S. aureus and B. subtilis with MIC of 6.25 micrograms/ml, it also shows activity against M. tuberculosis (MIC=15.6 ug/ml).
3. Conocarpan shows considerable activity against epimastigote forms of T. cruzi, with 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) of 8.0 microg/ml.
1. Oxysophocarpine shows a significant anti-inflammatory effect in the mouse ear swelling test, it also attenuates inflammatory pain by suppressing the levels of phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6.
2. Oxysophocarpine has significant neuroprotective effects that can be attributed to inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis.
3. Oxysophocarpine has anti-nociceptive effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems, it can induce anti-nociception and increase the expression of GABAAα1 receptors in mice.
4. Oxysophocarpine exerts anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects on pilocarpine (PILO)-treated mice.
1. 1beta-Hydroxybaccatin I possesses significant antinociceptive activity against p- benzoquinone-induced abdominal contractions.