Madecassoside is a mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, which has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptosis, wound-healing, and neuroprotective activities, It may have cardioprotective effects in LPS-mediated through inhibition of ERK, p38, and NF-κB activity, it inhibited the pro-inflammatory mediators, including COX-2 expression, PGE2 production, TNF-αand IL-6 levels and the up-regulation anti-inflammatory molecule IL-10.
Tyrosol is a potential hypo-pigmenting agent, it has neuroprotective, antioxidant, anti-hyperglycemia, and anti-allergic inflammatory effects. Tyrosol has cytoprotective effect in I/R-caused myocyte mortality was involved with the mitigation of ROS, prohibition of the activation of ERK, JNK and caspase-8, and elevation of Hsp70 and Bcl-2/Bax ratio.Tyrosol is a quorum-sensing molecule in Candida albicans, it has important implications on the dynamics of growth and morphogenesis in Candida.
Timosaponin BII has anti-diabetes, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-dementia activities, it can significantly reduce the neurotoxicity induced by beta amyloid peptide 25-35 in primary neurons, the mechanism of which may be related with resisting oxidative damage and regulating the cholinergic system.Timosaponin BII can improve the neurological symptoms of cerebral ischemic rat, reduce infarct size, relieve brain water edema, improve hemorheology, reduce inflammatory injury of cerebral ischemia; it could be used in the preparation of a medicament or product for the prevention and treatment of stroke.
Folic acid supplementation improves arterial endothelial function in adults with relative hyperhomocystinemia, with potentially beneficial effects on the atherosclerotic process. Both local perfusion of 5-MTHF and supplementation with folic acid increase vasodilatation in ageing individuals through NO-dependent mechanisms. The combined use of enalapril and Folic acid significantly reduced the risk of first stroke, folic acid deficiency and homocysteine impaired DNA repair in hippocampal neurons and sensitized them to amyloid toxicity.
Morusinol may significantly inhibit arterial thrombosis in vivo due to antiplatelet activity, may exert beneficial effects on transient ischemic attacks or stroke via the modulation of platelet activation.