1. Caryophyllene oxide shows significant central as well as peripheral analgesic, along with anti-inflammatory, activity at the doses of 12.5 and 25mg/kg body wt.
2. Caryophyllene oxide inhibits growth and induces apoptosis through the suppression of PI3K/AKT/mTOR/S6K1 pathways and ROS-mediated MAPKs activation.
3. Caryophyllene oxide as an antifungal agent in an in vitro experimental model of onychomycosis.
4. Artemisia campestris ssp. campestris essential oils with dominant caryophyllene oxide are notably toxic.
5. Caryophyllene Oxide and lupenone have synergistic effect against Trypanosoma cruzi.
6. β-Caryophyllene oxide has acaricidal activities against house dust mites,it and structural analogues have potential for development as preventive agents for control of house dust mites.
1. Camaric acid, lantanilic acid, and oleanolic acid possess nematicidal activity, they exhibit 95%, 98% and 70% mortality respectively against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita at 0.5% concentration.
2. Camaric acid shows antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant S. aureus with IC50 values 8.74 and 8.09 uM, respectively, it also shows moderate antileishmanial activity and highly potent antitrypanosomal activity.
3. Camaric acid shows anticancer activity.
4. Camaric acid shows significant topical anti-inflammatory activity with IC50 value of 0.67 mg/ear in the assay of TPA mouse ear oedema model.
1. Lupenone effectively inhibited adipocyte differentiation through downregulation of related transcription factor, particularly the PPARγ gene.
2. The in vitro trypanocidal activity of a 1 : 4 mixture of Lupenone and caryophyllene oxide confirmed a synergistic effect of the terpenoids against epimastigotes forms of T. cruzi (IC50 = 10.4 ug/mL, FIC = 0.46).
3. Lupenone stimulates melanogenesis by increasing the tyrosinase enzyme expression via mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 phosphorylation inhibition, making it a possible treatment for hypopigmentation diseases.
4. Lupenone and lupeol inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) with IC50 values of 13.7 ± 2.1 and 5.6 ± 0.9 uM, respectively, they are non−competitive inhibitors of PTP1B, and PTP1B appears to be an attractive target for the development of new drugs for type 2 diabetes and obesity.
1. Horminone may inhibit the initial steps of protein synthesis.
2. After administration of plant extracts containing Horminone has possibility of toxic effect.
3. Horminone and tingenone can inhibit the in vitro growth of Trypanosoma cruzi, 30 microM drug concentration producing total inhibition of growth.
4. Horminone has antimicrobial activity, it can inhibit the protein synthesis in several types of bacteria.
5. Horminone displays marked concentration-dependent antiproliferative effects.
1. Conocarpan has antinociceptive effects.
2. Conocarpan is quite active against S. aureus and B. subtilis with MIC of 6.25 micrograms/ml, it also shows activity against M. tuberculosis (MIC=15.6 ug/ml).
3. Conocarpan shows considerable activity against epimastigote forms of T. cruzi, with 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) of 8.0 microg/ml.