Punicalagin has antifungal , antiviral, anti-atherosclerotic, hepatoprotective , anti-obesity., antiproliferative, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. It can suppress the phosphorylation of MAPK including p38, c-JNK, and ERK, it also has potently inhibiting the activity of fatty acid synthase with half-inhibitory concentration values (IC 50 ) of 4.50μM.
Ginsenoside Rg2 has therapeutic potential for type 2 diabetic patients, it also may represent a potential neurorestorative treatment strategy for vascular dementia or other ischemic insults, has protective effects against H2O2-induced injury and apoptosis in H9c2 cells. Ginsenoside Rg2 suppresses the hepatic glucose production via AMPK-induced phosphorylation of GSK3β and induction of SHP gene expression, regulates the 5-HT3A receptors that are expressed in Xenopus oocytes, inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated Na+ influx and channel activity.
1. Taurine, a free β-amino acid with remarkable antioxidant activity, is used in Taurine-enriched beverages to boost the muscular power of athletes.
2. Taurine can attenuate nandrolone decanoate-induced poor sperm quality and testicular toxicity in rats.
3. Taurine can effectively promote chondrocyte growth and enhance accumulation of glycosaminoglycans and collagens in the conditioned media of chondrocytes, it is effective in proliferation promotion and phenotype maintenance of chondrocytes, thus, taurine may be a useful pro-chondrogenic agent for autologous chondrocyte implantation in the treatment of cartilage repair.
Galangin is an agonist/antagonist of the arylhydrocarbon receptor, and also shows inhibition of CYP1A1 activity. Galangin has anti-proliferation, anti-metastatic, anti-inflammatory, vasorelaxant, antiviral, anti-allergic inflammatory,anti-obesity effects; it may be a potential candidate for the treatment of vitiligo. Galangin can inhibit Topo I activity and reduce the unwinding rate of single stranded DNNA in tumor cells, which plays an important role in induction of A549 and H46 cell apoptosis. Galangin shows an inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity with the IC(50) of 120 microM; it also inhibits ERK, NF-κB-p65 and proinflammatory gene expression.
(+)-Catechin hydrate has antioxidant activity and is effective in reducing oxidative stress. (+)-Catechin inhibits cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) with an IC50 of 1.4 μM.