1. Ginsenoside Re inhibits Ca2+ accumulation in mitochondria during cardiac ischemia/reperfusion, it also exerts antiischemic effect and induces angiogenic regeneration.
2. Ginsenoside Re has anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities ,can improve hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia through activation of AMPK, and confer beneficial effects on type 2 diabetic patients with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia.
3. Ginsenoside Re can improve the cognition of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,the mechanism is by its anti-inflammation and antioxidation; glycemic control benefits the attenuation of diabetes-associated cognitive decline.
4. Ginsenoside Re can hyperpolarize HCAECs,and this effect can be reversed by apamin, suggests ginsenoside Re increases HCAEC outward current via SKCa channel activation, and NSC channel is not involved.
5. Ginsenoside Re increases the proliferation of CD4+ T cells with decreases cell death, and enhances viability of CD4+T cells through the regulation of IFN-γ-dependent autophagy activity.
6. Ginsenoside Re exhibits potent neuroprotective effects against neuroinflammation in a murine model of ALS, ginsenoside Re treatment can reduce the loss of motor neurons and active-microglia-related expression of Iba-1 in the spinal cord of symptom.
1. Lithospermic acid has antioxidant effects, is a competitive inhibitor of xanthine oxidas (XO), can directly scavenge superoxide and inhibit superoxide production in vitro, and presents hypouricemic and anti-inflammatory actions in vivo.
2. Lithospermic acid has inhibitory effects on proliferation and migration of rat vascular smooth muscle cells.
3. Lithospermic acid derivatives can increase expression of serine palmitoyltransferase in human HaCaT cells.
4. Lithospermic acid possesses anti-HIV activity.
5. Treatment with lithospermic acid B has a preventive effect on the development of diabetic retinopathy in this animal model, probably because of its antioxidative effects and anti-inflammatory effects.
6. Lithospermic acid can attenuate 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine-induced neurotoxicity by blocking neuronal apoptotic and neuroinflammatory pathways.
7. Lithospermic acid has hepatoprotective effects against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo.
8. Lithospermic acid can attenuate mesenteric ischemia reperfusion injury in rat intestines by increasing tissue SOD and GPx activities and decreasing MDA and MPO levels, also improves morphological alterations which occurred after periods of reperfusion.