Ginsenoside Re is a major ginsenoside in ginseng and belongs to 20(S)-protopanaxatriol group. It has diverse in vitro and in vivo effects, including anti-diabetic, vasorelaxant, antihyperlipidemic, anti-ischemic, angiogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammation actions. It also exhibits potent neuroprotective effects against neuroinflammation in a murine model of ALS. Re increases HCAEC outward current via SKCa channel activation; it also increases the proliferation of CD4+ T cells with decreases cell death, and enhances viability of CD4+T cells through the regulation of IFN-γ-dependent autophagy activity.
Lithospermic acid has anti-HIV, antioxidant ,anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective effects, is a competitive inhibitor of xanthine oxidas (XO), can directly scavenge superoxide and inhibit superoxide production in vitro, and presents hypouricemic actions in vivo. Lithospermic acid has inhibitory effects on proliferation and migration of rat vascular smooth muscle cells, it has a preventive effect on the development of diabetic retinopathy. Lithospermic acid can attenuate 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine-induced neurotoxicity by blocking neuronal apoptotic and neuroinflammatory pathways. Lithospermic acid can attenuate mesenteric ischemia reperfusion injury in rat intestines by increasing tissue SOD and GPx activities and decreasing MDA and MPO levels, also improves morphological alterations which occurred after periods of reperfusion.