Fumaric acid is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle used by cells to produce energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from food; also a product of the urea cycle. Fumaric acid is used in systemic and topical treatment of psoriasis. Fumaric acid attenuates the eotaxin-1 expression in TNF-α-stimulated fibroblasts by suppressing p38 MAPK-dependent NF-κB signaling.
1. Koumine can induce apoptosis of LoVo cells in a time-dependent manner and inhibit the DNA synthesis in LoVo cells, thereby blocking the cell cycle from G1 to S phase.
2. Koumine has a significant analgesic effect in rodent behavioral models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain, and that the reduction in neuropathic pain may be associated with the upregulation of allopregnanolone in the spinal cord.
3. Koumine has therapeutic effect against psoriasis, which is related to the inhibition of epidermal cell proliferation, promoting the formation of granular cells and decreasing the serum level of IL-2.
4. Koumine can significantly reduce the damage to axon and myelin sheath of the sciatic nerve and increase sensory nerve conduction velocity , without affecting body weight and blood glucose, these findings encourage the use of koumine in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.
5. Koumine has antineoplastic effect, may be a future breast cancer chemotherapeutic agent.
6. Koumine may produce anxiolytic-effect by increasing the levels of pregnenolone and allopregnenolone in hippocampus.
Indirubin is a potent cyclin-dependent kinases and GSK-3β inhibitor with IC50 of about 5 μM and 0.6 μM. Indirubin has anticancer, anti-inflammatory,antiviral,anti-allergic contact dermatitis effects. Each indirubin derivative acts on the DNA binding of NF-Y and represses the MDR1 gene promoter with tumor cell-type specificity.Indirubin derivatives have a potential to be used as an adjunct to antiviral therapy for the treatment of severe human H5N1 disease.
1. Corytuberine was inhibited only by naloxone and that of bulbocapnine preferentially by yohimbine.