8-Gingerol is one of the principal components of ginger, which is widely used in China and elsewhere as a food, spice and herb, it has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and skin-whitening activities. It suppresses cellular tyrosinase activity and decrease melanin content, inhibits the expression of MC1R, MITF, tyrosinase, TRP1 and TRP2, decreases intracellular RS and ROS levels in B16F10 and B16F1 cells, inhibits melanogenesis by down-regulation of MAPK, PKA signaling pathway.
Isoliquiritin has significant antidepressant-like, antifungal and anti-cancer activities. It induces apoptotic cell death through upregulating p53 and p21 in the A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells and inhibit the p53-dependent pathway and showed crosstalk between Akt activities.
Betaine hydrochloride is a natural compound found in many foods and also an active methyl-donor which can maintain normal DNA methylation patterns, which has anti-hypoxic, hepatoprotective, sedative, antipyretic and analgesic effects. Betaine hydrochloride can increase the secreting of thyroxine (T3) and insulin and regulate the metabolism of organism by the hormones, thus it prompts fish growth and also improves intestine figuration.
Asiaticoside, a biochemical modulator, which has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anxiolytic-like, anti-gastric ulcers, hepatoprotective, and antidepressant-like effects, it also exhibits significant wound healing activity in normal as well as delayed healing models. Asiaticoside suppressed collagen expression and TGF-β/Smad signaling through inducing Smad7 and inhibiting TGF-βRI and TGF-βRII in keloid fibroblasts. It and its derivatives can be regarded as reasonable candidates for a therapeutic Alzheimer's disease drug that protects neurons from Abeta toxicity.
Beta-Sitosterol is a novel plant-derived angiogenic factor which may have potential pharmaceutical applications for the management of chronic wounds. It has potent anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferation, and pro- apoptosis activities, it also possesses antipyretic activity, similar to acetylsalicylic acid.