1. 8-Gingerol is one of the principal components of ginger, which is widely used in China and elsewhere as a food, spice and herb, shows immunosuppressive activity on the immune responses to ovalbumin (OVA) in mice, 8-gingerol suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and concanavalin A (ConA)-stimulated splenocyte proliferation in vitro.
2. 8-Gingerol suppresses cellular tyrosinase activity and decrease melanin content, inhibits the expression of MC1R, MITF, tyrosinase, TRP1 and TRP2, decreases intracellular RS and ROS levels in B16F10 and B16F1 cells, inhibits melanogenesis by down-regulation of MAPK, PKA signaling pathway; it could be used as an effective skin-whitening agent.
3. 8-Gingerol has inhibition of T lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine synthesis.
4. 8-Gingerol has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
1. Insampaedoksan is a traditional herbal medicine used for antipyretic and antiinflammatory diseases, isoliquiritigenin is the main compound of it , thus , isoliquiritigenin has bioactivity effects such as antioxidant, estrogenic and anticancer.
2. Isoliquiritin, liquiritin,and isoliquirigenin induce apoptotic cell death through upregulating p53 and p21 in the A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells and inhibit the p53-dependent pathway and showed crosstalk between Akt activities,suggests they can be an alternative agent for the treatment of lung cancer.
3. Isoliquiritin and liquiritin produce significant antidepressant-like effects, and their mechanism of action may be due to increased 5-HT and NE in the mouse hippocampus, hypothalamus and cortex.
4. Isoliquiritin has antifungal activity, and has inhibitory effect against peronophythora litchi chen through a membrane damage mechanism.
1. Betaine hydrochloride has protective effects against hypoxic mice.
2. Betaine hydrochloride can increase the secreting of thyroxine (T3) and insulin and regulate the metabolism of organism by the hormones, thus it prompts fish growth and also improves intestine figuration.
3. Betaine hydrochloride shows promise for treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.
4. Betaine hydrochloride has sedative, antipyretic and analgesic effects.
1. Asiaticoside exhibits significant wound healing activity in normal as well as delayed healing models and is the main active constituent of Centella asiatica.
2. Centella asiatica and its active ingredient asiaticoside have potential use as anti-gastric ulcers drugs.
3. Asiaticoside suppresses collagen expression and TGF-β/Smad signaling through inducing Smad7 and inhibiting TGF-βRI and TGF-βRII in keloid fibroblasts.
4. Asiaticoside derivatives have potential protective effects against Abeta-induced cell death, they can be regarded as reasonable candidates for a therapeutic Alzheimer's disease drug that protects neurons from Abeta toxicity.
5. Asiaticoside exhibits an anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like effects.
6. Asiaticoside has remarkable hepatoprotective effects on lipopolysaccharide/ D-galactosamine-induced liver injury and the possible mechanism is related to inhibition of TNF-alpha and MAPKs.
7. Asiaticoside has antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide-treated rat through up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1.
8. Asiaticoside,as a biochemical modulator,may induce apoptosis,and enhance anti tumor activity of vincristine in cancer cells, may be useful in cancer chemotherapy.
9. Asiaticoside exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, it can effectively protect from septic lung injury induced by CLP and the underlying mechanisms might be related to up-regulation of PPAR-γ expression to some extent, which inhibits MAPKs and NF-κB pathway.
1. Beta-Sitosterol (LD50>3 g/kg i.p. in mice, minimum ulcerogenic dose was 600 mg/kg i.p. in rats) has potent anti-inflammatory activity,similar to hydrocortisone and oxyphenbutazone when administered intraperitoneally; possesses antipyretic activity, similar to acetylsalicylic acid.
2. Beta-Sitosterol shows a potent angiogenic activity in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay, it is a novel plant-derived angiogenic factor which may have potential pharmaceutical applications for the management of chronic wounds.
3. Beta-Sitosterol can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in human solid tumors such as colon and breast cancers, it potently induces apoptosis in U937 cells and induces apoptosis is related to the selective activation of caspase-3 and induction of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio.