Gelsemine is a highly toxic compound and may be a glycine receptor agonist. Gelsemine has antitumor, anti-hyperlipidemic,anti-oxidative activities,it also has marked antinociception in inflammatory, neuropathic and bone cancer pains without inducing antinociceptive tolerance.
Rosmarinic acid has antiviral, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, neuroprotective, anticancer, anti-lipid peroxidative, apoptotic,and antioxidant activities. It is used for food preservation, and to treat peptic ulcers, arthritis, cataract, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, bronchial asthma, and several human neurodegenerative diseases caused by oxidative stress. Rosmarinic acid has the ability to block complement fixation, inhibit lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase activity and inhibit the expression of CCL11 and CCR3 by suppressing the IKK-β activity in NF-κB activation signaling. It inhibits MAO-A, MAO-B and COMT enzymes with IC50s of 50.1, 184.6 and 26.7 μM, respectively.
Koumine shows potent anti-tumor, anxiolytic, antistress, antipsoriatic, and analgesic activities, it also protects against the development of arthritis in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) animal models.Koumine can induce apoptosis of LoVo cells in a time-dependent manner and inhibit the DNA synthesis in LoVo cells, thereby blocking the cell cycle from G1 to S phase.
Cannabidiol has a potent anti-arthritic effect in collagen-induced arthritis through its combined immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory actions, it has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs. Cannabidiol exerts a combination of neuroprotective, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects against beta-amyloid peptide toxicity, and that inhibition of caspase 3 appearance from its inactive precursor, pro-caspase 3, by cannabidiol is involved in the signalling pathway for this neuroprotection. Cannabidiol may have great therapeutic potential in the treatment of diabetic complications, and perhaps other cardiovascular disorders, by attenuating oxidative/ nitrative stress, inflammation, cell death and fibrosis.
Danshensu has anxiolytic-like, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and antioxidant activities. It can enhance HO-1 expression to suppress 6-OHDA-induced oxidative damage via PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 signaling pathways and can reduce 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic neuronal loss in zebrafish. Chronic treatment with danshensu can prevent/attenuate the formation of atherosclerosis.