1. 3-O-Methylquercetin may exert its anti-inflammatory effect through the inhibition of iNOS DNA transcription.
2. 3-O-Methylquercetin is a selective and competitive PDE3/PDE4 inhibitor, and inhibits PDE3 than PDE4 with a low K(m) value.
3. 3-O-Methylquercetin inhibits total cAMP- and cGMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE) of guinea pig trachealis at low concentrations.
4. 3-O-Methylquercetin has both anti-inflammatory and bronchodilating effects, and has the potential for use in the treatment of asthma at a dose without affecting blood pressure.
5. 3-O-Methylquercetin has antiviral activity.
1. Theophylline is the most widely used anti-asthma drug worldwide and is classified as a bronchodilator, although there is increasing evidence that it may have immunomodulatory effects.
2. Theophylline can restore histone deacetylase activity and steroid responses in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease macrophages (COPD).
3. Theophylline can antagonize flurazepam-induced depression of cerebral cortical neurons.
4. Theophylline has an antiinflammatory action, it accelerates granulocyte apoptosis, which may play an essential role in inflammation, and controls granulocyte longevity regardless of the elevation of intracellular cAMP levels.
5. Theophylline's pMDI formulation was shown to be suitable for inhalation and demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects at low doses in Calu-3 cell model.
1. Peimisine can affect M-receptor, excit β-receptor, restrain the release of internal calcium, and promote to releaseing nitrogen monoxidum in order to relax tracheal smooth muscle and relieve asthma.
2. Peimisine can attenuate lung tissue injury( ALI), LDH and MDA amount in ALI mice in a dose dependent manner, it also lower the total protein,total white blood cells,lymphocyte and neutrophilic leukocyte in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid( BALF); suggests that peimisine can play a protective role against LPS-induced acute lung injury.
3. Peimisine has the protective effect on the experimental hepatic fibrosis formation, the possible mechanisms are associated with inhibiting fibrogenesis and fibrosis accumulation,and decreasing lipid peroxidation.
4. Peimisine can inhibit angiotensin I converting enzyme activity in a dose-dependent manner, displaying 50 % inhibitory concentration values of 526.5 microM, thus, it may have antihypertensive action.
1. Vasicinone may act as a hepatoprotective agent.
2. (±)-Vasicinone has significant antitussive, expectorant, and bronchodilating activities, which can be used to treat respiratory disease.
3. (S)-Vasicinone exhibits antiproliferative activity against human gastric cancer cells MCG-803.
1. Glaucine has antitussive activity.
2. Glaucine can inhibit the migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells by MMP-9 inhibitory activity, attenuating IκBα and NF-κB activities.
3. Glaucine can enhance LPS and zymosan-induced IL-10 production, indicative for their use in different acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, may be an anti-arthritic agent.