Lobetyolin has a protective role in gastric mucosa injury, and the mechanism may be relate to the increase in level of 6-K-PGF1αand the inhibition the excretion of gastric acid and EGF. Lobetyolin inhibits the gene expression of MUC5AC mucin induced by PMA.
Neohesperidin, a natural new nutrition sweetener, has antioxidant (IC50=22.31ug/mL), anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. It can attenuate cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury via the inhibition of neuronal and oxidative stress through the regulation of the apoptotic pathway and activating the Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, it may be useful for the treatment and/or protection of gastritis.
Arbutin is a tyrosinase inhibitor with an IC50 of 1.09 mM, which has gastroprotective, whitening, anti- age, anti-oxidant , anti-inflammatory, a depigmenting effects and UVB/ UVC filter. Arbutin has mutagenicity in mammalian cells after activation by human intestinal bacteria.
Rutin has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, gastroprotective, anticonvulsant, anti-angiogenic and antiviral properties, it may protect against spatial memory impairment induced by trimethyltin. Rutin exerts anti-inflammatory effects in UVB-irradiated mouse skin by inhibiting expression of COX-2 and iNOS, which is attributable to its suppression of p38 MAP kinase and JNK signaling responsible for AP-1 activation.
Dehydroabietic acid , a major poison to fishes in pulp and paper mill effluents, which could be useful in improving the diabetic wound healing, it can reverse several cell responses stimulated by TNF-α, including the activation of FOXO1 and the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway. Dehydroabietic acid derivatives displays antisecretory and antipepsin effect, have gastroprotective activity in the HCl/EtOH-induced gastric lesions in mice as well as for cytotoxicity in human lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) and human epithelial gastric (AGS) cells.