Dictamnine shows anticholinesterase, anti-inflammatory, mutagenic, and has antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. It has the ability to exert cytotoxicity in human cervix, colon, and oral carcinoma cells, it at higher concentrations(≥100uM) has potential hepatotoxicity because of the cell membrane damage and mitochondrial membrane damage.
1. Tartrazine and carmoisine are an organic azo dyes widely used in food products, drugs and cosmetics.
2. Tartrazine is a food additive that belongs to a class of artificial dyes and contains an azo group; it has significant genotoxic effect , may be harmful to health and its prolonged use could trigger carcinogenesis.
1. Sunset yellow FCF and Brilliant Blue FCF are used as colorant food additives in many food products, they can have cytotoxic and genotoxic potential, it care must be taken when using these materials as a food additive.
1. Verminoside exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-properties.
2. Verminoside induces genotoxicity on human lymphocytes, involved with PARP-1 and p53 proteins.
3. Verminoside shows significant anti-inflammatory effects, can inhibit both iNOS expression and NO release in the LPS-induced J774.A1 macrophage cell line.
4. Verminoside attenuates intracellular ROS and stress (oxidative and thermal) level promoting longevity, the longevity and stress modulation can be attributed to VMS-mediated alterations in daf-16 expression which regulates insulin signaling pathway.
1. Tryptophol can inhibit the infection/replication of GVE2 by interacting with the host's Clp protease.
2. Tryptophol can inhibit the proliferation of U937 cells by inducing apoptosis via a pathway involving caspase-8 followed by caspase-3, without affecting normal lymphocytes.
3. Tryptophol can induce sleep in micem, tryptophols or the corresponding aldehydes may play a role in physiological sleep mechanisms.
4. Tryptophol has genotoxicity in a battery of short-term assays on human white blood cells in vitro.
5. Tryptophol induces apoptosis through Death Receptor (DR) 5 and that the resistance of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) to tryptophol-induced apoptosis might be due to competition from decoy receptor (DcR).
6. The trypanosome-produced tryptophol may account for the immunodepression observed during trypanosomiasis.