1. Esculentoside A and its aglycone phytolaccagenin have inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production, and haemolytic activities.
2. Phytolaccagenin has promising antifungal activity against ATCC standard cultures of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, and against clinical isolates of these fungi.
1. Polyphyllin II has hemolytic effect, the hemolytic mechanism in vitro may be related to the increase in intracellular osmotic pressure and rupture of erythrocytes by changing the anion channel transport activity, with glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) as the major competitive interaction site.
1. (+)-9(Z),17-Octadecadiene-12,14-diyne-1,11,16-triol shows antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens, antifungal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum, moiluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata at low concentrations, and in addition it possesses haemolytic activity.
1. Esculentoside A may be useful for the treatment of autoimmune disease through modulation on T cell-mediated adaptive immunity.
2. Esculentoside A may play significant roles in the treatment of BXSB mice through modulation of inflammatory cytokines, inhibition of renal cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis.
3. Esculentoside A has anti-inflammatory activity , can suppress inflammatory responses in LPS-induced ALI through inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa B and mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathways.
1. Pahutoxin is a natural fish-killing (ichthyotoxic) agent derived from the defensive secretions of trunkfish.
2. Pahutoxin is a haemolytic agent.