1. Esculentoside A and its aglycone phytolaccagenin have inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production, and haemolytic activities.
2. Phytolaccagenin has promising antifungal activity against ATCC standard cultures of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, and against clinical isolates of these fungi.
1. Esculentoside A may be useful for the treatment of autoimmune disease through modulation on T cell-mediated adaptive immunity.
2. Esculentoside A may play significant roles in the treatment of BXSB mice through modulation of inflammatory cytokines, inhibition of renal cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis.
3. Esculentoside A has anti-inflammatory activity , can suppress inflammatory responses in LPS-induced ALI through inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa B and mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathways.
1. Platycoside A induces the IgG and IgG1 antibody responses in the immunized mice.
2. Platycoside A has hemolytic activity and adjuvant potential on the immune responses to Newcastle disease virus-based recombinant avian influenza vaccine.
1. Chikusetsusaponin IV might relieve cutaneous symptoms caused by excessive apoptotic cell death in the skin through the Fas/FasL pathway.
1. Ginsenoside Rh4 could be safely used as adjuvant with low or non-haemolytic effect.
2. Ginsenoside Rh4 has cytotoxic activity and its aglycone against cancer cell lines.