1. Caffeic acid has antioxidant activity.
2. Caffeic acid has antineoplastic activity.
3. Caffeic acid shows anti-HIV activity.
4. Caffeic acid has choleretic activity.
5. Caffeic acid has hepatotropic activity.
6. Caffeic acid strongly inhibits neutrophil elastase.
1. Conophylline is useful in inducing differentiation of pancreatic β cells both in vivo and in vitro.
2. Conophylline down-regulates the expression of the TNF-alpha receptors on the cell surface, inhibits TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation.
3. Conophylline shows potential for treatment of type 1 diabetes, as well as a possible therapeutic role in pancreatic cancer.
4. Conophylline increased the expression of mRNA for insulin and the number of pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1-positive cells. These effects of conophylline were similar to those of activin A.
1. Betaine is an important nutrient for the prevention of chronic disease.
2. Betaine is an osmolyte to protect cells, proteins, and enzymes from environmental stress (eg, low water, high salinity, or extreme temperature).
3. Betaine is a methyl donor to participate in the methionine cycle—primarily in the human liver and kidneys.
4. Betaine can protect internal organs, improve vascular risk factors, and enhance performance.
1. Stevioside is a safe natural sweetener, has no allergic reactions, suited for both diabetics, and PKU patients, as well as for obese persons intending to lose weight by avoiding sugar supplements in the diet.
2. Stevioside exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties by inhibiting the release of cytokines and the activation of TLR2 and proteins of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways, as well as caspase-3 and Bax.
3. Stevioside and steviol attenuate LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine productions by affecting cytokine gene expression via IκBα/NF-κB signalling pathway.
1. Cichoric acid has been shown to inhibit hyaluronidase and HIV-1 integrase, and to possess phagoeytosis stimulatory activity in vitro and in vivo and antiviral acitivy.
2. Chicoric acid may reduce acute alcohol-induced steatosis in mice through interfering with the induction of iNOS and iNOS-dependent signaling cascades in the liver.
3. Chicoric acid inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes which was characterized by chromatin condensation and poly ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP) cleavage.