Naringin exhibits antioxidant, anti-atherogenic, antiulcer, anti-hypocholesterolemic, anti-lipoperoxidative, and anti-hyperglycemia effects. Naringin reduces Ara-C-induced oxidative stress through both an inhibition of the generation of ROS production and an increase in antioxidant enzyme activities, it blocks apoptosis caused by Ara-C-induced oxidative stress, resulting in the inhibition of the cytotoxicity of Ara-C. Naringin attenuates epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced MUC5AC secretion in A549 cells by suppressing the cooperative activities of MAPKs-AP-1 and IKKs-IκB-NF-κB signaling pathways.
Ginsenoside Rg2 has therapeutic potential for type 2 diabetic patients, it also may represent a potential neurorestorative treatment strategy for vascular dementia or other ischemic insults, has protective effects against H2O2-induced injury and apoptosis in H9c2 cells. Ginsenoside Rg2 suppresses the hepatic glucose production via AMPK-induced phosphorylation of GSK3β and induction of SHP gene expression, regulates the 5-HT3A receptors that are expressed in Xenopus oocytes, inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated Na+ influx and channel activity.
1. Isoferulic acid and ferulic acid have inhibitory effect on murine interleukin-8 production in response to influenza virus infections in vitro and in vivo; suggests that they are novel and potent inhibitors of murine IL-8 production and might act as one of the main components of anti-inflammatory rhizoma of Cimicifuga species.
2. Isoferulic acid can inhibit hepatic gluconeogenesis and/or increase the glucose utilization in peripheral tissue to lower plasma glucose in diabetic rats lacking insulin.
3. Isoferulic acid is an effective natural antioxidant in both lipid and aqueous media.
4. Isoferulic acid may be a new promising anti-glycation agent for the prevention of diabetic complications via inhibition of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation and oxidation-dependent protein damage.
5. Isoferulic acid has inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase.
1. Ginsenoside Rg2 can protect H9c2 cells against H2O2- induced injury through its actions of anti-oxidant and anti-apoptosis.
2. Ginsenoside Rg2 suppresses the hepatic glucose production via AMPK-induced phosphorylation of GSK3βand induction of SHP gene expression, it may have a therapeutic potential for type 2 diabetic patients.
3. 20R-Ginsenoside Rg2 inhibits the cytokine interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α)-induced reduction in gap junction-mediated intercellular communication (GJIC).
1. Marein shows neuroprotective effect on PC12 cell damage induced by methylglyoxal, which is due to a reduction of damage to mitochondria function and activation of the AMPK signal pathway, indicates that marein may be a potent compound for preventing/counteracting diabetic encephalopathy.
2. Marein shows antioxidant activity.
3. Marein can improve insulin resistance induced by high glucose in HepG2 cells through CaMKK/AMPK/GLUT1 to promote glucose uptake, through IRS/Akt/GSK-3β to increase glycogen synthesis, and through Akt/FoxO1 to decrease gluconeogenesis.
4. Marein shows Histone deacetylase enzymes (HDACs) inhibitory activity and it also can inhibit TNFα-induced NF-κB activation.