1. Naringin exhibits antioxidant effects, it reduces Ara-C-induced oxidative stress through both an inhibition of the generation of ROS production and an increase in antioxidant enzyme activities; it blocks apoptosis caused by Ara-C-induced oxidative stress, resulting in the inhibition of the cytotoxicity of Ara-C.
2. Naringin is a major and selective clinical inhibitor of organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2) in grapefruit juice, it is a single dietary constituent clinically modulating drug transport.
3. Naringin has anti-atherogenic effects, the effect is involved with a decreased hepatic cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity and with the downregulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) gene expression.
4. Naringin and hesperidin both play important roles in preventing the progression of hyperglycemia, partly by increasing hepatic glycolysis and glycogen concentration and/or by lowering hepatic gluconeogenesis.
5. Naringin has protective effects against post-stroke depression induced neurobehavioral, biochemical and cellular alterations in mice, the nitric oxide mechanism involves in it.
6. Naringin possesses anti-lipoperoxidative and antioxidant activity in experimentally induced cardiac toxicity, has cardioprotective potential.
7. Naringin inhibits growth potential of human triple-negative breast cancer cells by targeting β-catenin signaling pathway, it may be used as a potential supplement for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer.
8. Naringin attenuates epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced MUC5AC secretion in A549 cells by suppressing the cooperative activities of MAPKs-AP-1 and IKKs-IκB-NF-κB signaling pathways.
9. Naringin and lovastatin contribute to hypocholesterolemic action via down-regulated ACAT activity and higher excretion of fecal sterols in response to high-cholesterol feeding, naringin supplement seems to preserve tissue morphology from damages induced by high cholesterol diet.
10. Naringin has antiulcer effects on gastric lesions induced by ethanol in rats.
11. Naringin has protective effect against colchicine-induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative damage in rats.
1. Ginsenoside Rg2 suppresses the hepatic glucose production via AMPK-induced phosphorylation of GSK3β and induction of SHP gene expression, suggests that it has therapeutic potential for type 2 diabetic patients.
2. Ginsenoside Rg2 inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated Na+ influx and channel activity; it also inhibits the 5-HT-induced inward peak current (I5-HT) in dose dependent and reversible manner, the half-inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of ginsenoside Rg2 is 22.3 +/- 4.6 microM, suggests that it might regulate the 5-HT3A receptors that are expressed in Xenopus oocytes.
3. Ginsenoside Rg2 can reduce LPS-mediated THP-1 monocyte adhesion to HUVEC, in a concentration-dependent manner, it may provide direct vascular benefits with inhibition of leukocyte adhesion into vascular wall thereby providing protection against vascular inflammatory disease.
4. Ginsenoside Rg2 protects cells against UVB-induced genotoxicity by increasing DNA repair, in possible association with modulation of protein levels involved in p53 signaling pathway.
5. Ginsenoside Rg2 improves learning and memory through mechanisms related to anti-apoptosis in MID rats, indicates that it may represent a potential neurorestorative treatment strategy for vascular dementia or other ischemic insults.
6. Ginsenoside Rg2 has protective effects against H2O2-induced injury and apoptosis in H9c2 cells.
1. Isoferulic acid and ferulic acid have inhibitory effect on murine interleukin-8 production in response to influenza virus infections in vitro and in vivo; suggests that they are novel and potent inhibitors of murine IL-8 production and might act as one of the main components of anti-inflammatory rhizoma of Cimicifuga species.
2. Isoferulic acid can inhibit hepatic gluconeogenesis and/or increase the glucose utilization in peripheral tissue to lower plasma glucose in diabetic rats lacking insulin.
3. Isoferulic acid is an effective natural antioxidant in both lipid and aqueous media.
4. Isoferulic acid may be a new promising anti-glycation agent for the prevention of diabetic complications via inhibition of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation and oxidation-dependent protein damage.
5. Isoferulic acid has inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase.
1. Ginsenoside Rg2 can protect H9c2 cells against H2O2- induced injury through its actions of anti-oxidant and anti-apoptosis.
2. Ginsenoside Rg2 suppresses the hepatic glucose production via AMPK-induced phosphorylation of GSK3βand induction of SHP gene expression, it may have a therapeutic potential for type 2 diabetic patients.
3. 20R-Ginsenoside Rg2 inhibits the cytokine interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α)-induced reduction in gap junction-mediated intercellular communication (GJIC).
1. Marein shows neuroprotective effect on PC12 cell damage induced by methylglyoxal, which is due to a reduction of damage to mitochondria function and activation of the AMPK signal pathway, indicates that marein may be a potent compound for preventing/counteracting diabetic encephalopathy.
2. Marein shows antioxidant activity.
3. Marein can improve insulin resistance induced by high glucose in HepG2 cells through CaMKK/AMPK/GLUT1 to promote glucose uptake, through IRS/Akt/GSK-3β to increase glycogen synthesis, and through Akt/FoxO1 to decrease gluconeogenesis.
4. Marein shows Histone deacetylase enzymes (HDACs) inhibitory activity and it also can inhibit TNFα-induced NF-κB activation.