Chlorogenic acid, a phenolic compound found ubiquitously in plants, is an antioxidant and metal chelator, it has antiviral activity by inhibiting HBV replication, it inhibits the inflammatory reaction in HSE via the suppression of TLR2/TLR9-Myd88 signaling pathways. Some derivatives of chlorogenic acid are hypoglycemic agents and may affect lipid metabolism, chlorogenic acid can improve glucose tolerance, decrease some plasma and liver lipids, and improve mineral pool distribution in vivo.
1. (+)-Taxifolin is an inhibitor of aggregation of the 42-residue amyloid β-protein, it has preventive effects against Alzheimer's disease-like pathogenesis in vivo.
2. (+)-Taxifolin is a weak inhibitor of cytochrome b5 reduction (IC50=9.8μM).
1. Alpha-lipoic acid has become a common ingredient in multivitamin formulas, anti-aging supplements, and even pet food, it is well-defined as a therapy for preventing diabetic polyneuropathies, and scavenges free radicals, chelates metals, and restores intracellular glutathione levels which otherwise decline with age.
2. Alpha-lipoic acid can enhance glucose transport and utilization in different experimental and animal models, it can improve insulin sensitivity in patients with type-2 diabetes.
3. Lipoic acid is a novel treatment for Alzheimer's disease and related dementias.
4. Alpha-lipoic acid has therapeutic effects on joint inflammation and erosion in an animal model via NF-kappa B down regulation, it inhibits TNF-alpha induced NF-kappa B activation through blocking of MEKK1-MKK4-IKK signaling cascades.
1. Orally administered proanthocyanidins could prevent liver injury in the CCl4-induced steatosis model, likely through exerting antioxidant actions to suppress oxidative stress and inhibiting the free radical-generating CYP2E1 enzyme.
2. Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit H2O2-induced osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell apoptosis via ameliorating H2O2-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, suggests that a possible anti-osteoporosis effect of proanthocyanidins via their antioxidant and anti-apoptosis activity.
3. Proanthocyanidins form stable complexes with metal ions and with proteins and are good reducing agents, they may participate in the prevention of cancers, both of the digestive tract and inner organs, they may also protect LDLs against oxidation and inhibit platelet aggregation and therefore prevent cardiovascular diseases.
4. Proanthocyanidins have anti-inflammatory effect on experimental inflammation in rats and mice, which mechanisms of anti-inflammatory action are relevant to oxygen free radical scavenging, anti-lipid peroxidation, and inhibition of the formation of inflammatory cytokines.
5. Proanthocyanidins have hypolipidemic effects, they inhibit the processes of intestinal lipid absorption, chylomicron secretion by the intestine and VLDL secretion.
6. Proanthocyanidins have antiviral and antioxidant activity.
7. Dietary proanthocyanidins inhibit photocarcinogenesis in mice through the inhibition of UVB-induced inflammation and mediators of inflammation in mouse skin.
8. Proanthocyanidins has a significant effect in the protection of heart against myocardial injury induced by isoproterenol.
Phytic acid is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues, especially bran and seeds. It can act as a cofactor in DNA repair by nonhomologous end-joining. It is a trypsin inhibitor, has chelating, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects, it forms an iron chelate which greatly accelerates Fe2+-mediated oxygen reduction yet blocks iron-driven hydroxyl radical generation and suppresses lipid peroxidation. High concentrations of phytic acid prevent browning and putrefaction of various fruits and vegetables by inhibiting polyphenol oxidase, it may be a substitute for presently employed preservatives.