1. Arbutin has whitening, anti- age effects and UVB/ UVC filter by inhibiting tyrosinase and thus preventing the formation of melanin.
2. Normal skin microflora may increase the skin lightening effect of arbutin due to the antioxidant action of hydroquinone.
3. Arbutin has mutagenicity in mammalian cells after activation by human intestinal bacteria.
4. Arbutin has gastroprotective activities.
5. Arbutin is an anti-oxidant and a depigmenting agent, also has anti-inflammatory effect, it may be useful for treating the inflammatory and deleterious effects of BV2 microglial cells activation in response to LPS stimulation.
1. Heraclenin and imperatorin have an equally strong clastogenic effect .
2. Heraclenin can induce apoptosis in Jurkat leukemia cells.
3. Heraclenin has mutagenicity in Chlamydomonas reinhardii.
4. (+)-Heraclenin displays significant levels of antiplasmodial and moderate levels of antimicrobial activities.
5. Heraclenin has anticoagulant activity.
6. Heraclenin shows anti-inflammatory activity.
1. Xanthotoxin is a phytoalexin of Pastinaca sativa root, it has effects on growth and detoxification in caterpillars.
2. Xanthotoxin has tritrophic effects on the Polyembryonic Parasitoid Copidosoma sosares (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), the tritrophic effects of xanthotoxin are likely to be due to the effects of xanthotoxin after direct contact in the hemolymph rather than to the effects of compromised host quality.
3. Xanthotoxin has anticonvulsant activities, it can protect the animals against maximal electroshock-induced seizures.
4. Xanthotoxin increases succinate dehydrogenase production in mitochondria and also in the cytoplasm, indicating changes in membrane permeability.
5. Xanthotoxin (methoxsalen) has mutagenic effect in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardii, it can causes an increase of the mutation frequency in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardii.
6. Xanthotoxin prevents bone loss in ovariectomized mice through the inhibition of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, it may be considered to be a new therapeutic candidate for treating osteoporosis.
1. Seneciphylline, one of the hepatotoxic pyrolizidine alkaloids, can induce a marked arterial and arteriolar hypertrophy of the lung of young Wistar rats a month after a single s. c. injection of 50–80 mg/kg.
2. Seneciphylline and senkirkine, two pyrrolizidine alkaloids, have mutagenic activity in Drosophila and their transfer into rat milk.
3. Seneciphylline can significantly increased the activities of epoxide hydrase and glutathione-S-transferase but cause reduction of cytochrome P-450 and related monooxygenase activities.
1. gamma-Fagarine possesses moderate levels of anti-HCV activities with IC₅₀ values being 20.4 ± 0.4 ug/ml, respectively.
2. gamma-Fagarine has sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs)-inducing activity, it induces SCEs in human lymphocyte cultures in a dose-dependent manner.
3. gamma-Fagarine and dictamnine are mutagenic in strain TA100 and TA98 with S9 mix, they have specific activities (His+/microgram) of about 50-70 revertant colonies in strain TA100, while in strain TA98 there are about 30-50 revertant colonies.