Arbutin is a tyrosinase inhibitor with an IC50 of 1.09 mM, which has gastroprotective, whitening, anti- age, anti-oxidant , anti-inflammatory, a depigmenting effects and UVB/ UVC filter. Arbutin has mutagenicity in mammalian cells after activation by human intestinal bacteria.
1. Heraclenin and imperatorin have an equally strong clastogenic effect .
2. Heraclenin can induce apoptosis in Jurkat leukemia cells.
3. Heraclenin has mutagenicity in Chlamydomonas reinhardii.
4. (+)-Heraclenin displays significant levels of antiplasmodial and moderate levels of antimicrobial activities.
5. Heraclenin has anticoagulant activity.
6. Heraclenin shows anti-inflammatory activity.
Xanthotoxin (Methoxsalen ) is a potent tricyclic furocoumarin suicide inhibitor of CYP (cytochrome P-450), is an agent used to treat psoriasis, eczema, vitiligo and some cutaneous Lymphomas in conjunction with exposing the skin to sunlight. Xanthotoxin has anticonvulsant activities, it can protect the animals against maximal electroshock-induced seizures; Xanthotoxin prevents bone loss in ovariectomized mice through the inhibition of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, it may be considered to be a new therapeutic candidate for treating osteoporosis.
1. Seneciphylline, one of the hepatotoxic pyrolizidine alkaloids, can induce a marked arterial and arteriolar hypertrophy of the lung of young Wistar rats a month after a single s. c. injection of 50–80 mg/kg.
2. Seneciphylline and senkirkine, two pyrrolizidine alkaloids, have mutagenic activity in Drosophila and their transfer into rat milk.
3. Seneciphylline can significantly increased the activities of epoxide hydrase and glutathione-S-transferase but cause reduction of cytochrome P-450 and related monooxygenase activities.
1. gamma-Fagarine possesses moderate levels of anti-HCV activities with IC₅₀ values being 20.4 ± 0.4 ug/ml, respectively.
2. gamma-Fagarine has sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs)-inducing activity, it induces SCEs in human lymphocyte cultures in a dose-dependent manner.
3. gamma-Fagarine and dictamnine are mutagenic in strain TA100 and TA98 with S9 mix, they have specific activities (His+/microgram) of about 50-70 revertant colonies in strain TA100, while in strain TA98 there are about 30-50 revertant colonies.