Gelsemine is a highly toxic compound and may be a glycine receptor agonist. Gelsemine has antitumor, anti-hyperlipidemic,anti-oxidative activities,it also has marked antinociception in inflammatory, neuropathic and bone cancer pains without inducing antinociceptive tolerance.
Carnosic acid is a lipid absorption inhibitor, endowed with antioxidative, antimicrobial, photoprotective potential, and antiproliferative properties. It can protect neurons both in vitro and in vivo through activation of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway via S-alkylation of targeted cysteines on Keap1. It is increasingly used within food, nutritional health and cosmetics industries.
Phellodendrine has the effect of suppressing cellular immune response, reducing blood pressure and antinephritis, it also has antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. Phellodendrine can suppress local semisyngeneic GvH reactions and systemic allogeneic GvH reactions in X-ray irradiated recipient mice, it also can suppress the induction phase of sheep red blood cell (SRBC)-induced delayed type hypersensitivity in mice and tuberculin-induced delayed type hypersensitivity in guinea pigs, Phellodendrine can down-regulating AKT, IKK, NF-kB phosphorylation and COX-2 expression induced by AAPH, it also ameliorates the ROS-mediated inflammatory response.
Coenzyme Q10, an essential cofactor of the electron transport chain, has neuroprotective effect in the cerebral ischemia via as a potent antioxidant and oxygen derived free radicals scavenger. Treatment with coenzyme Q10 in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) may be beneficial in patients with high risk of atherothrombosis. The coenzyme Q10 and alpha-lipoic acid supplementation can improve bladder function after outlet obstruction. The combination of Coenzyme Q10 and creatine may be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's Diseases. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation improves endothelial function of conduit arteries of the peripheral circulation in dyslipidaemic patients with Type II diabetes, the mechanism could involve increased endothelial release and/or activity of nitric oxide due to improvement in vascular oxidative stress.
Astragaloside IV can protect the myocardium against ischemia/reperfusion injury, inhibit adenovirus replication and apoptosis in A549 cells in vitro, has anti-fibrotic effect against systemic sclerosis, and may be useful in ameliorating food-induced metabolic syndrome and membranous nephropathy. It suppresses the activation of ERK1/2 and JNK, and downregulates matrix metalloproteases (MMP)-2, (MMP)-9 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.