|CFN99505||Aristolochic acid A
Aristolochic acid A is a potent nephrotoxin, which strongly induced toxic damage during ovarian maturation by inhibiting Akt phosphorylation-mediated suppression of apoptosis.
Colchicine is a tubulin inhibitor, and a microtubule polymerization inhibitor with an IC50 of 3 nM. It prevents amyloidosis in our high-risk population and that it can prevent additional deterioration of renal function in patients with amyloidosis who have proteinuria but not the nephrotic syndrome. Colchicine has anti-mitotic activity, it can be used to treat familial mediterranean fever, and as a lead compound for the generation of potent anti-cancer drugs.
Norcantharidin has been used to treat human cancers in China since 1984, it inhibits the canonical Wnt signal pathway in NSCLC, by activating WIF-1 via promoter demethylation; it also enhances TIMP‑2 antitumor and anti‑vasculogenic mimicry activities in GBCs through downregulating MMP‑2 and MT1‑MMP. Norcantharidin is a protein phosphatase type-2A inhibitor, which has less nephrotoxic and phlogogenic side-effects, it can inhibit both DNA synthesis and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cells (GM-CFC)growth and impaire the neogenesis of chromatin material and nuclear membrane during the M/G1 phase transition in K-562 cells.
1. Strictosamide may have important effects on inflammation and inflammatory pain.
2. Strictosamide is slightly toxic to Charles River mouse (LD(50)=723.17 mg/kg), producing CNS depression and kidney toxicity.
3. Strictosamide has nonsignificant in vitro and in vivo effect on kidney Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity but produced an in vivo increase of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity of brain.
4. Strictosamide possesses antibacterial and antiviral activities.
1. Telocinobufagin shows a reversible local anesthetic action, similar to BUPI, however, without cardiac toxicity in vitro.
2. Telocinobufagin is a novel endogenous digitalis, exhibits elevated plasma levels in patients with terminal renal failure.
3. Telocinobufagin and marinobufagin have antimicrobial activity, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of telocinobufagin and marinobufagin were, respectively, 64.0 and 16.0 microg/mL for E. coli and both 128 microg/mL for S. aureus; they also promote an increase of the contraction force in isolated frog ventricle strips.
4. Telocinobufagin has potential immune system regulatory effects, suggests that it could be developed as a novel immunotherapeutic agent to treat and other immune-mediated diseases, and it may become a new immunomodulatory agent in many regions.
5. Telocinobufagin can enhance the Th1 immune response and protect against Salmonella typhimurium infection.
6. Telocinobufagin can induce colon cancer cell apoptosis by oxidative stress and apoptosis pathway.