1. Alpha-lipoic acid has become a common ingredient in multivitamin formulas, anti-aging supplements, and even pet food, it is well-defined as a therapy for preventing diabetic polyneuropathies, and scavenges free radicals, chelates metals, and restores intracellular glutathione levels which otherwise decline with age.
2. Alpha-lipoic acid can enhance glucose transport and utilization in different experimental and animal models, it can improve insulin sensitivity in patients with type-2 diabetes.
3. Lipoic acid is a novel treatment for Alzheimer's disease and related dementias.
4. Alpha-lipoic acid has therapeutic effects on joint inflammation and erosion in an animal model via NF-kappa B down regulation, it inhibits TNF-alpha induced NF-kappa B activation through blocking of MEKK1-MKK4-IKK signaling cascades.
Yohimbine hydrochloride is an alpha 2-adrenoreceptor antagonist, blocking the pre- and postsynaptic alpha-2 adrenoreceptors and causing an increased release of noradrenaline and dopamine.It is an antagonist to xylazine hydrochloride-ketamine hydrochloride immobilization of white-tailed deer. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of impotence. It is also alleged to be an aphrodisiac.
Protodioscin has been shown to exhibit multiple biological actions, such as anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-cancer, sexual effects and cardiovascular properties. It appears to possess aphrodisiac activity probably due to its androgen increasing property, it will be useful in developing health food supplement(s) and/or drug(s) against hyperlipidemia.
1. Lucidone has anti-inflammatory activity, the activity might be caused by the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expressions through downregulation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 binding.
2. Lucidone has hepatoprotective effect, it-mediated up-regulation of phase-II enzymes and HO-1 via Nrf-2 signaling pathway may provide a pivotal mechanism for its hepatoprotective action.
3. Lucidone may possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and may be useful for the prevention of free radical-induced skin damage.
4. Dietary intake of lucidone alleviates high fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice and reveals the potential of lucidone as a nutraceutical to prevent obesity and consequent metabolic disorders.
5. Lucidone accelerates wound healing through the cooperation of keratinocyte/fibroblast/ ndothelial cell growth and migration and macrophage inflammation via PI3K/AKT, Wnt/β-catenin and NF-κB signaling cascade activation.
6. Lucidone suppresses hepatitis C virus replication by Nrf2-mediated heme oxygenase-1 induction, it could be a potential lead or supplement for the development of new anti-HCV agent in the future.
1. Epicatechin pentaacetate is a phenolic compound from the V. mullaha fruit extracts, the utilization of V. mullaha fruit as functional food with prospective pharmaceutical, nutraceuticals and cosmeceutical properties.