1. Alpha-lipoic acid has become a common ingredient in multivitamin formulas, anti-aging supplements, and even pet food, it is well-defined as a therapy for preventing diabetic polyneuropathies, and scavenges free radicals, chelates metals, and restores intracellular glutathione levels which otherwise decline with age.
2. Alpha-lipoic acid can enhance glucose transport and utilization in different experimental and animal models, it can improve insulin sensitivity in patients with type-2 diabetes.
3. Lipoic acid is a novel treatment for Alzheimer's disease and related dementias.
4. Alpha-lipoic acid has therapeutic effects on joint inflammation and erosion in an animal model via NF-kappa B down regulation, it inhibits TNF-alpha induced NF-kappa B activation through blocking of MEKK1-MKK4-IKK signaling cascades.
1. Yohimbine is an alkaloid with stimulant and aphrodisiac effects, helping with erections, particularly in those whose erectile dysfunction is due to psychological causes.
2. Yohimbine hydrochloride is an antagonist to xylazine hydrochloride-ketamine hydrochloride immobilization of white-tailed deer.
3. Yohimbine hydrochloride can block alpha 2-adrenergic and dopamine receptors and stimulate serotonergic receptors, it may possible be an antagonist for fescue toxicosis.
4. Yohimbine hydrochloride, a noradrenaline agonist, can facilitate fear extinction, it is thought that the mechanism of enhanced emotional memory is stimulated through elevated noradrenaline levels.
1. Protodioscin is cytotoxic against most cell lines from leukemia and solid tumors in the NCI's human cancer panel, especially selectively against one leukemia line (MOLT-4), one NSCLC line (A549/ATCC), two colon cancer lines (HCT-116 and SW-620), one CNS cancer line (SNB-75), one melanoma line (LOX IMVI), and one renal cancer line (786 - 0) with GI50 < or = 2.0 microM.
2. Protodioscin appears to possess aphrodisiac activity probably due to its androgen increasing property.
3. Protodioscin has antihyperlipidemic effect, its great availability in various vegetables and medicinal plants will be useful in developing health food supplement(s) and/or drug(s) against hyperlipidemia.
1. Lucidone may possess antioxidant property and may be useful for the prevention of free radical-induced skin damage.
2. Lucidone has anti-melanogenic activity, is probably due to its inhibition of tyrosinase activity and the suppression of tyrosinase and MITF expression.
3. Lucidone has anti-inflammatory activity, might cause by the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expressions through the down-regulation of NF-κB and AP-1 binding activity.
1. Epicatechin pentaacetate can protect neurons against mitochondrial toxins and HIV proteins via activation of the BDNF pathway.