1. Alpha-lipoic acid has become a common ingredient in multivitamin formulas, anti-aging supplements, and even pet food, it is well-defined as a therapy for preventing diabetic polyneuropathies, and scavenges free radicals, chelates metals, and restores intracellular glutathione levels which otherwise decline with age.
2. Alpha-lipoic acid can enhance glucose transport and utilization in different experimental and animal models, it can improve insulin sensitivity in patients with type-2 diabetes.
3. Lipoic acid is a novel treatment for Alzheimer's disease and related dementias.
4. Alpha-lipoic acid has therapeutic effects on joint inflammation and erosion in an animal model via NF-kappa B down regulation, it inhibits TNF-alpha induced NF-kappa B activation through blocking of MEKK1-MKK4-IKK signaling cascades.
1. Yohimbine is an alkaloid with stimulant and aphrodisiac effects, helping with erections, particularly in those whose erectile dysfunction is due to psychological causes.
2. Yohimbine hydrochloride is an antagonist to xylazine hydrochloride-ketamine hydrochloride immobilization of white-tailed deer.
3. Yohimbine hydrochloride can block alpha 2-adrenergic and dopamine receptors and stimulate serotonergic receptors, it may possible be an antagonist for fescue toxicosis.
4. Yohimbine hydrochloride, a noradrenaline agonist, can facilitate fear extinction, it is thought that the mechanism of enhanced emotional memory is stimulated through elevated noradrenaline levels.
1. Protodioscin is cytotoxic against most cell lines from leukemia and solid tumors in the NCI's human cancer panel, especially selectively against one leukemia line (MOLT-4), one NSCLC line (A549/ATCC), two colon cancer lines (HCT-116 and SW-620), one CNS cancer line (SNB-75), one melanoma line (LOX IMVI), and one renal cancer line (786 - 0) with GI50 < or = 2.0 microM.
2. Protodioscin appears to possess aphrodisiac activity probably due to its androgen increasing property.
3. Protodioscin has antihyperlipidemic effect, its great availability in various vegetables and medicinal plants will be useful in developing health food supplement(s) and/or drug(s) against hyperlipidemia.
1. Lucidone has anti-inflammatory activity, the activity might be caused by the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expressions through downregulation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 binding.
2. Lucidone has hepatoprotective effect, it-mediated up-regulation of phase-II enzymes and HO-1 via Nrf-2 signaling pathway may provide a pivotal mechanism for its hepatoprotective action.
3. Lucidone may possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and may be useful for the prevention of free radical-induced skin damage.
4. Dietary intake of lucidone alleviates high fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice and reveals the potential of lucidone as a nutraceutical to prevent obesity and consequent metabolic disorders.
5. Lucidone accelerates wound healing through the cooperation of keratinocyte/fibroblast/ ndothelial cell growth and migration and macrophage inflammation via PI3K/AKT, Wnt/β-catenin and NF-κB signaling cascade activation.
6. Lucidone suppresses hepatitis C virus replication by Nrf2-mediated heme oxygenase-1 induction, it could be a potential lead or supplement for the development of new anti-HCV agent in the future.
1. Epicatechin pentaacetate is a phenolic compound from the V. mullaha fruit extracts, the utilization of V. mullaha fruit as functional food with prospective pharmaceutical, nutraceuticals and cosmeceutical properties.