1. Highest concentrations of (2R,3R)-(+)-glucodistylin, (2S,3S)-(-)-glucodistylin and 3-O-( -d-xylopyranosyl)taxifolin occur in European beeches can strongly infest with beech scale.
Cinnamic acid, a naturally occurring aromatic fatty acid of low toxicity, has anti-diabetic , anticancer and antioxidant activities. It is a cell differentiation inducer and protein isoprenylation inhibitor, shows a significant radio-protective effect by reducing the DNA damage induced by X-rays. Cinnamic acid inhibited feeding by detritivores, this inhibition occurs at concentrations found in nature and may be a major factor controlling the rate of decay of organic matter. It inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity in reversiblywith the IC 50 value of 2.10 mM.
1. Xanthinin is a plant growth-regulating compound from Xanthium pennsylvanicum.
2. Xanthinin is a phytotoxic xanthanolide, can inhibit the growth of plants.
Catechin, a cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) inhibitor with an IC50 of 1.4 μM, which has antiangiogenic, antitumor, antioxidant, UV-protective, anti-aging, phytotoxic, antimicrobial, and antiviral effects. Catechin shows its potential as biobased active packaging for fatty food, and exerts cardioprotection through treating many kinds of angiocardiopathy.
Isoalantolactone, an apoptosis inducer, possesses multiple biological activities including antifungal, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antitrypanosomal activities and antiproliferative effects on several cancer cell lines, such as colon, melanoma, ovary, prostate, lung, and leukemia. Isoalantolactone induces apoptosis, may be mediated through caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways, S phase arrest, inhibition of phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt, and downregulation of Bcr/Abl.