1. Veratraldehyde was reduced by aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase to their corresponding alcohols, which was oxidized by aryl-alcohol oxidase, producing H2O2.
2. Veratraldehyde as a corrosion inhibitor for Zinc in different acid medium.
1. Orally administered proanthocyanidins could prevent liver injury in the CCl4-induced steatosis model, likely through exerting antioxidant actions to suppress oxidative stress and inhibiting the free radical-generating CYP2E1 enzyme.
2. Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit H2O2-induced osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell apoptosis via ameliorating H2O2-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, suggests that a possible anti-osteoporosis effect of proanthocyanidins via their antioxidant and anti-apoptosis activity.
3. Proanthocyanidins form stable complexes with metal ions and with proteins and are good reducing agents, they may participate in the prevention of cancers, both of the digestive tract and inner organs, they may also protect LDLs against oxidation and inhibit platelet aggregation and therefore prevent cardiovascular diseases.
4. Proanthocyanidins have anti-inflammatory effect on experimental inflammation in rats and mice, which mechanisms of anti-inflammatory action are relevant to oxygen free radical scavenging, anti-lipid peroxidation, and inhibition of the formation of inflammatory cytokines.
5. Proanthocyanidins have hypolipidemic effects, they inhibit the processes of intestinal lipid absorption, chylomicron secretion by the intestine and VLDL secretion.
6. Proanthocyanidins have antiviral and antioxidant activity.
7. Dietary proanthocyanidins inhibit photocarcinogenesis in mice through the inhibition of UVB-induced inflammation and mediators of inflammation in mouse skin.
8. Proanthocyanidins has a significant effect in the protection of heart against myocardial injury induced by isoproterenol.
1. Apiin is the reducing and stabilizing agent.
2. Apiin has inhibitory activity in-vitro on iNOS expression and nitrite production when added before LPS stimulation in the medium of J774.A1 cells.