Benzoylaconine and aconitine can induce reproductive toxicity in BeWo Cell, the amino acid metabolism was the main metabolic pathway and responsible for the placental and fetal toxicity of them.
1. Cathinone is the main psychoactive constituent of the khat leaf and this alkaloid is a natural amphetamine, cathinone shares the action of amphetamine on CNS as well as its sympathomimetic effects.
2. (-)-Cathinone has reproductive toxicity in rats.
3. Cathinone generates oxidative stress hampered antioxidant enzymes, glutathione and lipid peroxidation.
4. Cathinone induces significant behavioral changes and CNS activation in the hamster by systemic administration.
5. Cathinone causes hormonal alterations probably via changes in hypothalamo-hypophyseo-adrenocortical and gonadal axes integrity.
6. Cathinone has amphetamine-like effects, it can produce increases in blood pressure and in heart rate, and these changes are concomitant with the presence of cathinone in blood plasma, it has in humans euphorigenic and psychostimulant effects.
7. Cathinone has vasoconstrictor activity which is not due to indirect or direct sympathomimetic activity, the coronary vasoconstriction may explain the increased incidence of myocardial infarction in khat chewers, which may arise from coronary vasospasm.
beta-Asarone has neuroprotection, anti-tumor, anthelmintic, anti-inflammary, and anticoagulant effects, it can afford a beneficial inhibition on both mRNA and protein expression of Bad, Bax, and cleavage of caspases 9 in rat hippocampus following intrahippocampal injections of Abeta (1-42).beta-Asarone prevents autophagy and synaptic loss by reducing ROCK expression in SAMP8 mice. beta Asarone can cause liver and cardiac damages, it also has reproductive toxicity.