1. Phyllanthin is widely used as hepatoprotective and antigenotoxic and inhibit function of P-gp.
Sodium danshensu (SDSS), the sodium salt of danshensu (DSS), has the neuroprotective effect against cerebral I/R injury, and the potential mechanism might to inhibition of apoptosis through activating the PI3K/Akt signal pathway. SDSS has a protective effect against the genotoxicity of cigarette smoke，it shows a biphasic effects on vessel tension, while low dosage of sodium danshensu produces small contraction possibly through transient enhancement of Ca(2+) influx, high dosage produces significant vasodilation mainly through promoting the opening of non-selective K(+) channels and small-conductance calcium-sensitive K(+) channels in the vascular smooth muscle cells.
1. Formononetin causes vascular relaxation via endothelium/NO-dependent mechanism and endothelium-independent mechanism which involves the activation of BK(Ca) and K(ATP) channels.
2. Formononetin-treated Ovx rats has an increased bone osteoprotegerin-to-receptor activator for nuclear κB ligand ratio compared with the Ovx+ vehicle group; daily oral administration of formononetin for 12 weeks has a substantial anabolic effect, thus raising the possibility of its use in postmenopausal osteoporosis.
3. Formononetin exhibits antiviral activities against some members of Picornaviridae, could inhibit EV71-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production via MAPKs pathway including ERK, p38 and JNK, thus, formononetin could be a potential lead or supplement for the development of new anti-EV71 agents in the future.
4. Formononetin reduces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis and improves the levels or activity of indicators of oxidative stress, also inhibits the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), which is a significant transcription factor for RGC-5 apoptosis.
5. Formononetin has antitumorigenic effects, it suppresses the proliferation of human non-small cell lung cancer through induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
1. Hypophyllanthin and phyllanthin have antitumour effects against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma in mice.
2. Hypophyllanthin can modulate the vascular tension via the endothelium-independent mechanisms.
3. Hypophyllanthin can directly inhibit P-gp activity and does not interfere with MRP2 activity, it may reversibly inhibit P-gp function.
4. Hypophyllanthin offers a promising means for treatment of chronic muscle pain.
5. Hypophyllanthin has estrogenic properties against carbofuran induced toxicity in female rats.