1. Phyllanthin is widely used as hepatoprotective and antigenotoxic and inhibit function of P-gp.
1. Sodium danshensu (SDSS), the sodium salt of danshensu (DSS), has the neuroprotective effect against cerebral I/R injury, and the potential mechanism might to inhibition of apoptosis through activating the PI3K/Akt signal pathway.
2. Sodium danshensu has a protective effect against the genotoxicity of cigarette smoke.
3. Sodium danshensu shows a biphasic effects on vessel tension, while low dosage of sodium danshensu produces small contraction possibly through transient enhancement of Ca(2+) influx, high dosage produces significant vasodilation mainly through promoting the opening of non-selective K(+) channels and small-conductance calcium-sensitive K(+) channels in the vascular smooth muscle cells.
1. Formononetin causes vascular relaxation via endothelium/NO-dependent mechanism and endothelium-independent mechanism which involves the activation of BK(Ca) and K(ATP) channels.
2. Formononetin-treated Ovx rats has an increased bone osteoprotegerin-to-receptor activator for nuclear κB ligand ratio compared with the Ovx+ vehicle group; daily oral administration of formononetin for 12 weeks has a substantial anabolic effect, thus raising the possibility of its use in postmenopausal osteoporosis.
3. Formononetin exhibits antiviral activities against some members of Picornaviridae, could inhibit EV71-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production via MAPKs pathway including ERK, p38 and JNK, thus, formononetin could be a potential lead or supplement for the development of new anti-EV71 agents in the future.
4. Formononetin reduces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis and improves the levels or activity of indicators of oxidative stress, also inhibits the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), which is a significant transcription factor for RGC-5 apoptosis.
5. Formononetin has antitumorigenic effects, it suppresses the proliferation of human non-small cell lung cancer through induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
1. Hypophyllanthin can directly inhibit P-gp activity and did not interfere with MRP2 activity, it may reversibly inhibit P-gp function.
2. Hypophyllanthin can modulate the vascular tension via the endothelium-independent mechanisms.