Ginsenoside Rc (Rc), a protopanaxadiol type ginsenoside, is the active component mainly responsible for the therapeutic and pharmacologic properties of ginseng, which are derived from its suppression of superoxide-induced free radicals, Rc can modulate Forkhead box O (FoxO1)phosphorylation through activation of PI3K/Akt and inhibition of AMPK and FoxO1 acetylation through interaction with CBP and SIRT1, and that this leads to upregulation of catalase under conditions of oxidative stress.
Ginsenoside Rc from Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) exhibits anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities, can attenuate inflammatory symptoms of gastritis, hepatitis and arthritis.
Ginsenoside Rc and Re induce c-fos in MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells at both the mRNA and protein levels, they act via other transcription factors and not via estrogen receptor in c-Fos expression.
Ginsenoside Rc significantly enhances glucose uptake by inducing ROS generation, which leads to AMPK and p38 MAPK activation.,consequently, it can be used as a potent natural anti-diabetic agent.
Ginsenoside Rc can promote anti-adipogenic activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes by down-regulating C/EBPα and PPARγ.
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