|Description:||1. 1,7-Dihydroxy-2,3-dimethoxyxanthone shows significant inhibitory effects on LPS-induced NO production in BV2 microglia cells. |
2. 1,7-Dihydroxy-2,3-dimethoxyxanthone antagonises in a non competitive but, reversible manner the contractions induced by chemical inflammatory mediators in the guinea pig trachea in vitro, thus, it may have medicinal use in the management of inflammation, asthma and allergy.
|Source:||The roots of Polygala tenuifolia.|
|Solvent:||Chloroform, Dichloromethane, Ethyl Acetate, DMSO, Acetone, etc.|
|Storage:||Providing storage is as stated on the product vial and the vial is kept tightly sealed, the product can be stored for up to 24 months(2-8C).
Wherever possible, you should prepare and use solutions on the same day. However, if you need to make up stock solutions in advance, we recommend that you store the solution as aliquots in tightly sealed vials at -20C. Generally, these will be useable for up to two weeks. Before use, and prior to opening the vial we recommend that you allow your product to equilibrate to room temperature for at least 1 hour.
Need more advice on solubility, usage and handling? Please email to: email@example.com
|After receiving:||The packaging of the product may have turned upside down during transportation, resulting in the natural compounds adhering to the neck or cap of the vial. take the vial out of its packaging and gently shake to let the compounds fall to the bottom of the vial. for liquid products, centrifuge at 200-500 RPM to gather the liquid at the bottom of the vial. try to avoid loss or contamination during handling.|
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg||20 mg||25 mg|
|1 mM||3.4692 mL||17.3461 mL||34.6921 mL||69.3842 mL||86.7303 mL|
|5 mM||0.6938 mL||3.4692 mL||6.9384 mL||13.8768 mL||17.3461 mL|
|10 mM||0.3469 mL||1.7346 mL||3.4692 mL||6.9384 mL||8.673 mL|
|50 mM||0.0694 mL||0.3469 mL||0.6938 mL||1.3877 mL||1.7346 mL|
|100 mM||0.0347 mL||0.1735 mL||0.3469 mL||0.6938 mL||0.8673 mL|
J Pharm Pharmacol. 2013 May;65(5):767-76.
|Role of gastric mucus secretion, oxinitrergic system and sulfhydryl groups on the gastroprotection elicited by Polygala cyparissias (Polygalaceae) in mice.[Pubmed: 23600395]|
|This study has aimed to assess the mechanisms of action for the gastroprotective effect of the acetone extract (PCAE) and methanol fraction (PCMF) of Polygala cyparissias, as well as to evaluate the activity of 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxy-2,7-dimethoxyxanthone (1), 1,7-Dihydroxy-2,3-dimethoxyxanthone (2) and astragalin (3). METHODS: Gastric secretion and mucus content were determined by pylorus ligation in mice. Nitric oxide (NO) and sulfhydryl group participation were observed by the pretreatment of mice with L-NAME or NEM. Acute ulcer was induced by ethanol/HCl and chronic ulcer by acetic acid. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity was evaluated by the agar solid dilution assay. KEY FINDINGS: Neither PCAE nor PCMF had the ability to reduce H(+) concentration. However, both of them enhanced mucus secretion. PCAE demonstrated its gastroprotection in a NO-dependent manner, while PCMF exerted the activity depending on the sulfhydryl group. In chronic ulcer, the curative ratios for the PCAE and PCMF were 67.5 and 58.4%, respectively. No effect over H. pylori was detected. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 were able to reduce lesions in the order of 79.6, 73.8 and 67.6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggested that PCAE and PCMF displayed antiulcer activity due to different mechanisms and with the participation of phenolic compounds obtained from the plant.|
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2012 Feb;27(1):1-4.
|Chemical constituents of Polygala tenuifolia roots and their inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in BV2 microglia.[Pubmed: 21740104 ]|
|A methanolic extract of the roots of Polygala tenuifolia (Polygalaceae) significantly attenuated nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia cells. Five xanthones, 1-hydroxy-7-methoxyxanthone (1), 3,6-dihydroxy-1,2,7-trimethoxyxanthone (2), 1,3,6-trihydroxy-2,7-dimethoxyxanthone (3), 1,7-Dihydroxy-2,3-dimethoxyxanthone (4) and 1,7-dihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone (5), and five phenylpropanoids, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxypropiophenone (6), methyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid (7), 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acid (8), 4-methoxycinnamic acid (9) and β-d-(3-O-sinapoyl) fructofuranosyl-α-d-(6-O-sinapoyl)glucopyranoside (10), were isolated from CHCl(3) fraction using bioactivity-guided fractionation. Among these compounds, compounds 1, 2, 4, 5 and 7 showed significant inhibitory effects on LPS-induced NO production in BV2 microglia cells at the concentration ranging from 10.0 to 100.0 μM.|
Z Naturforsch C. 2004 May-Jun;59(5-6):335-8.
|Xanthones from Polygala alpestris (Rchb.).[Pubmed: 18998397]|
|Bioactivity-guided fractionation of Polygala alpestris L. (Rchb.) extracts led to the identification of two new xanthones, 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2,6-dimethoxyxanthone (1) and 2,3-methylenedioxy-4,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2). In addition five known compounds 3,4-dimethoxy-1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (3), 1,3-dihydroxy-7-methoxyxanthone (4), 1,7-Dihydroxy-2,3-dimethoxyxanthone (5), 3',6-O-disinapoyl sucrose (6) and 3',5'-dimethoxybiphenyl-4-olo (7) were isolated. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by means of high resolution mass spectrometry, mono- and bi-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. All isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxic activity against three tumor cell lines (LoVo, HL-60, K 562).|
Inflamm Res. 1999 Apr;48(4):218-23.
|In vitro effect of the extract and the 1,7-dihydroxy-2,3-dimethoxy xanthone from Polygala cyparissias on the contractions induced by inflammatory mediators and ovalbumin in normal and actively sensitised trachea from guinea pig.[Pubmed: 10344473]|
|The hydroalcoholic extract of P. cyparissias (0.125 to 1 mg/ml), incubated with the guinea-pig trachea for 20 min, had no effect on the resting tone of the preparations, but caused a concentration-dependent, reversible and non competitive inhibition of contractions induced by acetylcholine, histamine, compound 48/80, bradykinin, substance P, prostaglandin E2 and the stable analogue of thromboxane A2 mimetic U 46619. The calculated mean IC50 values for the hydroalcoholic extract were: 0.37, 0.51, 0.06, 0.32, 0.48, 0.3 and 0.17 mg/ml, respectively. Also, the extract of P. cyparissias (0.125 to 0.5 mg/ml) antagonised, in a graded manner (IC50 of 0.46 mg/ml) ovalbumin-induced contractions in guinea-pig trachea obtained from animals which had been actively sensitised to this antigen. Pre-incubation of the preparations with the purifed xanthone isolated from P. cyparssias (2.5 to 80 microg/ml; 10.0 to 310.0 microM) caused significant and concentration-dependent, reversible and noncompetitive inhibition of the contractile responses elicited by acetylcholine, histamine, bradykinin, substance P, U 46619 and prostaglandin E2. The calculated mean IC50 values for these effects were: 132.0, 73.0, 9.2, 32.0, 110.6 and 66.0 microM, respectively. At very high concentrations (I55.0-620.0 microM) the xanthone also antagonised contraction induced by KCl in guinea-pig trachea (IC50 of 190.0 microM).CONCLUSIONS: Taken together these and our previous in vivo results are consistent with the view that the active principles present in P. cyparissias, including the 1,7-Dihydroxy-2,3-dimethoxyxanthone, antagonise, in a non competitive but, reversible manner the contractions induced by chemical inflammatory mediators in the guinea pig trachea in vitro. Thus, these results might explain at least in part, the medicinal use of this plant in the management of inflammation, asthma and allergy.|